"Surprises of the old stump"
The most laborious concern of the gardener is the fight against plant pests and diseases. It would seem that all plant protection products have been used, but the season begins: on apples - scab, gooseberries - moth, on ridges - onion fly ... and everything started spinning in a new circle. Gardeners sometimes forget that, before taking on chemicals, you need to carefully see if all the causes of the spread of pests have been eliminated.
For example, harmless stumps, which remain on the ridges after cutting the fork. Aphids hibernate with them. In addition, they are a source of diseases such as keela, vascular bacteriosis.
Experienced gardeners never leave stumps in the ground, but collect and send them to a compost pit. The possibility of the spread of pests in a limited area of the personal plot is unusually high. Therefore, the timely elimination of post-harvest residues is one of the mandatory preventive measures. Work is carried out throughout the season so as not to litter the site.
Final cleaning should be carried out in October before the onset of cold weather. The selection of diseased fetuses is especially strict. It is better to burn them or bury them in the ground to a depth of at least 20 cm.
Remember that leaving diseased bulbs in the ground will help spread the nematode. The falling of apples and pears is a source of scab, the remains of potatoes attract rodents, become the causative agent of late blight and gray rot. There are many such examples. Pay attention to your greenhouse business. Clean greenhouses and greenhouses from post-harvest residues and weeds, disinfect and repair.
There are many varieties of powdery mildew, which are caused by various fungal pathogens that affect the foliage, stem and developing fruit. Many horticultural crops are susceptible to powdery mildew, including gooseberries, grapes, pumpkins, beets, and even fruit trees.
The first symptom of the spread of powdery mildew is the appearance of a light bloom on the foliage, which is especially noticeable in the morning hours, when the greens are covered with dew. Initially, such spots are noted on the leaves located near the ground, and as the fungus develops, it passes on to the fruit. Small ulcers can be seen on plants affected by powdery mildew, the foliage begins to dry quickly, and the plantings soon die.
Many types of pests and pathogens overwinter in trees and shrubs.
At the base of the buds of fruit trees, eggs of aphids, honeydews, winter moths overwinter, and eggs of ringed silkworms on 1-3 year old shoots.
In the crown of trees in nests of woven leaves, caterpillars of the hawthorn and goldtail butterflies winter.
Eggs of aphids overwinter on the shoots of currants, in the buds there is a currant kidney mite, pathogens of powdery mildew.
Quite a lot of causative agents of diseases persist in the winter period on the bark of trunks and shoots. It is possible to prevent the appearance of harmful objects on blossoming trees and bushes by taking protective measures, starting in early spring. We propose to carry out the following activities for this.
On an apple tree, a pear, a plum, a cherry, before bud break, pruning for thinning the crown with the obligatory removal of weakened branches and root growth, treatment of wounds, cleaning of old bark. The peeled and peeled bark is collected on a litter and burned. At the same time, dead trees are uprooted.
As a separate event, the destruction of winter nests of hawthorn, goldtail with a pruner or a long-handled lopper should be considered. In the previous two years, in the central, districts of the Nizhny Novgorod region, hawthorn was observed in large quantities. The pest was found everywhere during the summer of butterflies. This massive appearance is due to the biological characteristics of the species.
This species is ubiquitous in the European part of Russia, found on fruit crops, bird cherry, mountain ash. The butterfly hibernates at the 2-3 instar caterpillar stage in nests made of damaged leaves held together by cobwebs. There can be from 10 to 70 caterpillars in the nest. 10 days after the apple tree blossoms, caterpillars pupate and butterflies fly out.
They form large clusters near wet areas where they mate. Then the butterflies lay their eggs on the fruit trees and die. The caterpillars hatched from the eggs feed for 20-25 days and go to winter.
In the process of feeding in years of high abundance, caterpillars can seriously damage the leaf apparatus, weaken fruit trees, and reduce their productivity. Increases in numbers are observed with an interval of 4-5 years, lasting 3-4 years. Collecting winter nests is best done from November to March, as long as there are no leaves and they are clearly visible. The nests must be collected and incinerated.
Against the ringed silkworm cut off the tips of the shoots with rings of egg-laying. Work can be started in the fall and continued in the spring, before budding begins.
The cut branches are not destroyed, but placed in a place far from the apple tree. The fact is that some of the eggs of the pest are inhabited by wasps wintering there, which are its parasites.
Branches with eggs are tied into a bunch or simply placed in a three-liter jar and left on the veranda or in the barn. It is necessary that the riders that emerged from the parasitized eggs had the opportunity to fly out of the premises into the street. These are your future helpers in pest control in the garden. Caterpillars of butterflies that hatch from the rest of the eggs will not be able to reach their food plants and will quickly die without food.
At the same time, they cut out the branches of currants, inhabited by a willow scale, affected by powdery mildew. Such shoots usually have a curved shape. In the presence of buds inhabited by a kidney currant mite, they are collected and destroyed, if necessary, treatment with colloidal sulfur is possible before flowering. Collide sulfur is not used on gooseberries.
From the plum moth in early spring, you can dig up the soil to destroy the caterpillars hibernating in cocoons. Digging the soil inhibits coccomycosis and cherry scab.
Fallen leaves must be burned if they did not manage to do this in the fall. Destruction of leaves is also necessary to combat clasterosporium disease, which has recently spread widely in cherry plantings. It is advisable to do this in an organized manner in the entire garden area, and not in separate areas, only then this event will be effective and help get rid of this disease.
If necessary, treating trees before bud break with insecticides and fungicides against the wintering stages of scabbards, false scutes, ticks, apple sucker, scab.
At the beginning of bud opening or the pheno-phase of the green cone, mainly in apple orchards, trees are treated with the recommended insecticides to destroy the apple blossom beetle and other fruit weevils.
It is possible to prevent their settling with the help of glue belts, which at the same time are applied to the stem and removed after flowering. Whitewashing tree trunks with milk of lime no later than the green bud phase will also help protect trees from the apple blossom beetle.
At the same time, I spray the fruit trees with a 4% Bordeaux mixture for scab, coccomycosis and clastoresporiosis on cherries, the second spraying on the blossoming leaves is carried out with a 1% solution.
Against stem pests, if the garden is old, it is necessary in the spring, before the beginning of summer, the beetles must be cut down and the trunks of old, non-bearing trees laid out in the garden. Sapwood lays eggs on such trunks; in July, the trunks are necessarily burned.
Apple tree in the period from isolation to staining of the buds, it can be treated with insecticides at a high number of suckers, aphids, ticks, fruit sawflies, leaf rollers, moths, hawthorn, goldtail, ringed and unpaired silkworms, and other leaf-gnawing pests.
On stone fruit crops, such spraying is carried out from geese, beetles, moths. On currants, processing is carried out before flowering at 5-10% colonization of the leaves of aphids.
From powdery mildew treated with sulfur preparations at the beginning of bud extension. Spraying should be generous to ensure thorough wetting of the affected organs.
The processing of raspberry plantations is carried out during the period of outcropping of buds against spider mites, raspberry-strawberry weevil, and raspberry beetle.
Chemical treatments should be used when absolutely necessary, when pests or diseases pose a significant threat to the crop, and maybe the life of the plant itself. A prerequisite for chemical treatments will be the absence of green crops (parsley, radish, etc.) in the immediate vicinity.
In the first half of May, during the mass summer of May beetles in the early morning, when it is still cool, you can shake them off onto the litter and destroy them. May beetle larvae, which develop within 4 years, can seriously damage the root system of seedlings of trees, perennials, and potatoes.
At the end of May, in the afternoon, they examine the trunks and forks of thick branches on the side illuminated by the sun and collect the caterpillars of the ringed silkworm, hawthorn, and gold-tailed moth, which bask in the sun at that time. Many caterpillars, especially pubescent ones, can cause allergic reactions, which manifest themselves in the form of severe itching, redness of the skin, and edema. Be careful.
Vegetable pests belong to several types: insects, ticks, nematodes, slugs - more than 100 species of the animal world prefer to feed on various parts of plants. More than half of them represent the most vicious detachment of pests of gardens and vegetable gardens. There are practically no parts of the plant that would not be damaged by pests.
To save crops from damage, and crops from destruction, gardeners and vegetable growers are waging a real war with intruders. But in order for the war to be crowned with success, you need to know well your enemy and the phenological phases of plant development.
Most insects go through four phases in their development: an adult insect lays eggs, larvae hatch from them, which in turn turn into pupae, and adult insects emerge from the pupae. Such a transformation is called complete. Some of the insects in their development skip one or another phase - that is, they undergo incomplete transformation.
The period of development from eggs to an adult insect is called a generation. Insect larvae have a worm-like body, grow rapidly and, as they grow, molt several times (shedding the chitinous membrane). The interval between molts is usually called age. The body of an adult insect is articulate, consisting of a head, chest and abdomen. Two (sometimes one) pairs of wings are attached on the upper side of the chest. Three pairs of legs are attached to the underside. All insects have antennae of various lengths, which serve as their sense organs.
Suborder of insect pests of cultivated plants. As a rule, they go through a full transformation cycle. They prefer to live on plants and soil, have wings, but use them in exceptional cases - only in search of new territories.
May beetle is especially harmful at the larval stage. It is enough for the upper layers of the soil to warm up, and immediately the larvae will begin to rise to the layers of the plant's root system. The insects of the May beetle themselves begin their mass flight in the late afternoon in April - May and feed on the leaves, flowers and ovary of strawberries and other fruit and forest plantations.
Females begin to lay eggs in the soil just during the mass flight of the May beetle. The eggs lie at a depth of 10–30 cm. Around June, larvae hatch from the eggs, which cause the greatest harm to the garden strawberry. In the soil, the larvae live from three to four years, depending on climatic conditions. In the south, the larva turns into an adult beetle after three years, in the north - after four.
The wintering of the May beetle takes place underground. Both larvae and adults hibernate underground. The larvae of the first year of life feed on young roots, and the larvae of the second year and older move to large roots, damaging the root system of plants, which leads to their death.
- loosening the soil during pupation of larvae
- during the feeding period of beetles before laying eggs, they are used for spraying plants with insecticides "BI-58 new" and "Rogor-S".
An insect with a complete transformation cycle. Body length up to 17 mm, yellow-brown color. The body is ovoid, on the elytra there are 10 black longitudinal stripes. The front back has 11 dark spots.
Eggs are oblong-oval, orange and red-yellow in color. The larva is fleshy, flat below and convex on the dorsum. Its color varies from orange-red to orange-yellow. There are two rows of black spots on the sides.
It hibernates in the soil at a depth of 20–70 cm. It comes to the surface when the soil warms up to 12 ° C at a depth of 10 cm. It settles by flights, and over long distances.
Colorado potato beetle: 1 - adult 2 - larva 3 - clutch of eggs
The female lays eggs in clusters (20–40 pcs.), Mainly on the underside of the leaf. Larvae appear in 5-17 days (depending on weather conditions) and live for 3 weeks. After that, they go into the soil at the base of the plants to a depth of 5–8 cm and pupate. Pupae turn into beetles after 6-15 days. During the season, the Colorado potato beetle gives 1-3 generations.
- in small areas, beetles and their larvae are collected by hand in jars of kerosene or a concentrated solution of sodium chloride
- sprinkle potatoes with dilor (80% wettable powder at the rate of 3-6 g per 10 l of water), dibromium (10% emulsion concentrate, at the rate of 70-140 g per 10 l of water)
- when the first generation larvae appear on the nightshade, two sprays are carried out with preparations: "Aktara 25WG", "Arrivo", "Sherpa" at the rate of 1.5 ml per 10 l of water or "Mospilan" (0.25 ml per 4 l of water), "Bankolom" (2-3 ml per 5 liters of water).
- deep autumn digging of the soil, which will cause the death of the pest in winter
- high hilling of potatoes before closing the tops
- mowing tops 7-10 days before harvesting. All mowed tops are burned.
- use on the site of the only natural fighters of the Colorado potato beetle - pheasants
- sprinkling the ground around the plant with fresh sawdust scares off most of the beetles. Sawdust should be changed every 10 days. Do not leave them for digging - the acid-base balance of the soil is disturbed
- scattering on beds occupied by nightshades, cake from home beet mash scares away beetles from the site.
The body length of an adult bear is 35–40 mm. The upper body is dark off-white in color, the abdomen is brownish-yellow, with a silky sheen, covered with dense short hairs. The front legs are digging.
Inhabits soil, prefers low humid places. Making holes in the upper horizons of the soil (no deeper than 20 cm), it gnaws at the roots of plants encountered on its way.
Adult insects and larvae hibernate in soil at a depth of 1 m or in manure. They appear on the surface when the soil at a depth of 20 cm warms up to 10 ° C.
Females lay eggs in nesting underground channels at a depth of 10–15 cm. Larvae are born at the end of May and live in nests for 20–30 days. Only one generation develops per season.
Medvedka damages cabbage, cucumbers, tomatoes, eggplants, onions, lettuce and other plants. Damage is mainly caused by the underground part of the plant. It was noticed that the bear most strongly affects the areas where fresh manure is used as fertilizer.
- luring the insect out of the shelter to the surface of the soil and subsequent destruction.
The seeds of grain crops poisoned by vofatox are used as bait, laying it in small pits, which are covered with dark and dense material. The baits are checked once every 2-3 days. Medvedka is destroyed.
In heavily infected areas, small (70x70x70) pits are dug around the perimeter, which are filled with horse manure. Before the onset of frost, they are dug up and the insects that have gathered in them for the winter are destroyed.
In the summer, the bait is used with heat: a small layer of turf is selectively removed on the site, a small piece of roofing material or tar is put in its place - the insects gather under them to warm themselves.
Such baits are checked after the heat has subsided, in the late afternoon, insects are collected and destroyed
- scaring away the bear. On a plot among vegetable crops, stick green alder branches at a distance of 1.5 m from each other. For the same purposes, waste of salted fish (sprat, herring, sprat) can be laid out along the rows
- loosening the row spacing to a depth of 10-15 cm destroys the bear's nests
- after the emergence of seedlings of cultivated plants, good results are obtained by watering individual beds with a solution of "Lotus" washing powder (4 tablespoons per 10 liters of water)
- planting root crops in plastic cylinders (cut off the bottom and top of plastic bottles for water, drinks, beer). The resulting cylinders are pressed into the soil to a depth of 15–20 cm. Medvedka, bumping into an obstacle, bypasses it.
The beetle is 6–8.5 mm long, dark brown in color, there are individuals of light brown color with gray pubescence. The fore chest has a long, narrow outgrowth below, which enters the depression on the middle chest. It is this outgrowth that makes a click at the moment when the beetle turned over on its back helps itself to jump high and stand on its feet with its help.
The larva of the last stage of development has a color from yellow to dark yellow. Its length is 18.5 mm, and its width is 1.4 mm, all three pairs of chest legs are the same length. The larvae have a dense cover resembling a piece of wire, which gave the insect its second name - wireworm.
The larvae live in the soil for 2 to 5 years. They feed on the roots of cultivated and wild plants. During the growing season of plants, the larvae are at a depth of 10–12 cm.
They pupate after the cessation of feeding. The pupa turns into a beetle in 2-3 weeks. Young beetles stay overwintered in the soil, and come to the surface in spring or early summer (depending on weather conditions).
- systematic removal of wheatgrass and other cereal weeds, the roots of which serve as food for the wireworm
- loosening row spacings destroys wireworm nests, larvae and eggs die
- application for spring tillage of ammonium nitrate (15 g per 1 sq. M), ammonium sulfate (25 g per 1 sq. M)
- when sowing vegetable crops, add diazin (5 %, granulated at 30 g per 10 sq. m)
- luring wireworms with baits before sowing or planting cultivated plants. Small tubers of potatoes or other root crops cut into pieces are used as bait.
The bait is prepared as follows: a twig 20–25 cm long is inserted into each piece of root vegetable and buried into the soil to a depth of 5–10 cm with a cut down. The distance between the lures is 0.3–0.5 m from each other.
After 1–2 days, the baits are examined, wireworms that have dug into them are selected and destroyed. The baits can be reused by moistening them and updating the cut.
If the site is infested with wireworms, then after sowing or planting vegetables, you can repeat this procedure, but they should be added dropwise along the rows.
Specially planted plants can also be used as bait in heavily infested areas. To do this, 1–2 weeks before sowing or planting vegetables, sow corn, oats or barley: 4–5 grains per nest every 50–70 cm. The emerging seedlings are dug out together with a clod of earth and the larvae are selected
- the most effective way to combat is a mixture of lysine feed concentrate (CLL) with granular superphosphate (ratio: 2-3 g of CLL and 25 g of superphosphate). The mixture is embedded in the soil at the same time as sowing or planting vegetable crops at a distance of 5–6 cm from the row.
Diseases of any vegetable in the garden are an unpleasant problem. It is good if you manage to save the crop, but more often you have to dig up infected plants, destroy the carrots stored in the cellars.
To prevent this, it is necessary to follow the rules of agricultural technology, to carry out prevention:
Carrot varieties of early ripening are less susceptible to disease. Among them:
Many of them, despite the short growing season, are suitable for storage. Breeders have developed varieties and hybrids that are resistant to major diseases:
It is enough to follow simple recommendations so that healthy and juicy carrots grow in your garden.
Insects carry many diseases. In addition, among them there are many types that themselves are not averse to feasting on garlic juice, despite all the piquancy of taste.
She wakes up in the second half of May and lays eggs at the base of garlic leaves or on the ground, in close proximity to garlic and onion plantings. The hatched larvae penetrate the inside of the garlic head and eat the young juicy scales. The plant slows down growth, then withers and gradually dries up. The root crop itself softens and rots, emitting a very unpleasant odor.
To prevent the harm that the onion fly can cause, first of all, you should:
To spray garlic beds against onion flies, you can use the following infusion:
Pour the makhorka with hot water, add pepper and leave for three days to infuse. For greater efficiency, the container with the contents can be wrapped with something warm. After the time has elapsed, strain the mixture, increase the volume to 10 liters and pour in liquid soap. It is used for better adhesion of the solution to the leaves.
The revitalizing procedure should be carried out every 10-14 days, starting from the emergence of shoots.
This pest prefers dry and warm weather. It hibernates in the ground, and starts flying with the onset of warmth. The onion moth lays eggs in garlic beds or between leaves, at their very base. The first generation of caterpillars appears in May-June. Longitudinal stripes on the leaves of garlic testify to their vital activity.
Against the onion moth, it is possible and necessary to use the same folk remedies as against the onion fly.
A parasitic worm, small and threadlike, causes significant harm to garlic beds. There are three types of nematodes.
The appearance of the stem nematode is accompanied by yellow-brown spots on the leaves. The aerial part of the plant is twisted and deformed.
When infected with a root nematode, neoplasms (galls) appear on the roots of garlic. Their diameter does not exceed 2 mm. Close inspection of the head of garlic can also reveal light brown egg-laying.
The root nematode is more difficult to recognize. It develops in close intertwining with fungal and viral diseases. When garlic is damaged by a root nematode, the following occurs:
Preventive measures should be taken to protect garlic from uninvited guests.
Weeds and seedlings from random crops are most often host plants for nematodes.
The prevention of the horse nematode includes the alternation of vegetable crops. (Sowing after carrots, beets.)
If a root-knot nematode is damaged, garlic can be returned to the same bed no earlier than after 5 years.
Against stem nematodes, when planting garlic in the fall, it will protect the soaking of the seed.
The effectiveness of these methods is 95-98% and increases the adaptation of the plant after planting.
The insect is a microscopic organism of light yellow or dark brown color. Its dimensions are barely 1 mm. Females of thrips lay eggs in the soft tissues of the leaves, and after 3-5 days larvae appear from them. They feed on the sap of the plant and deprive it of nutrients. Garlic begins to stunted, the stems become sluggish. The parasitic insect hibernates in the upper soil layer.
To avoid the appearance of a pest on garlic, you must adhere to the following recommendations.
When thrips appear, you can spray the plants with celandine infusion. Insist 1 kg of dry raw materials in 10 liters of water for 2 days.
Root (or onion) tick
This pest is ubiquitous. The defeat occurs to a greater extent in the storage, but it happens that damage to the plants is also caused during the cultivation of garlic on the site. It enters the garden bed together with the planting material.
Penetrating into the bulb through the bottom, the tick eats up the fleshy scales, which leads to decay of the root crop.
In order not to bring the insect to the site, it is necessary to purchase healthy planting material. It is also necessary to burn plant residues to monitor the cleanliness of garden tools.
The storehouse, where the garlic will hibernate, is subjected to treatment with sulfur dioxide, which is formed when burning the "Gamma" checkers. Disinfection will be effective if the room is hermetically closed and the processing time is 2 days.
Make a simple baking soda product to keep your greenhouse plants green and fruitful for longer. In addition, the use of a solution with sodium bicarbonate for cucumbers, tomatoes, eggplants
To prepare a solution in 10 liters of warm water, dissolve 1 tbsp. l. soda, stir thoroughly to dissolve the crystals. Pour 0.5 l of cucumbers and tomatoes under each root. Processing must be carried out in dry weather in the evening. If you are processing plants in a greenhouse, then the procedure can be carried out at any time.
[message] Treat on damp ground after watering the beds. [/ message]
If you notice that downy mildew (peronosporosis) has appeared on the leaves of cucumbers, treat the plants with a solution prepared from 50 g of baking soda, dissolved in a bucket of water with the addition of 50 g of any liquid soap. The solution is mixed well and the plants are sprayed over the leaf.
To feed tomatoes, prepare a solution in a proportion of 1 liter of water, dissolve 1 tsp. baking soda (0.5% solution) and spray the tomato leaves. Such feeding will improve the absorption of boron, which in turn will improve the taste of ripe fruits.
For the prevention of late blight on tomatoes, prepare a solution in a ratio of 3 tbsp. l. 10 liters of water and spray the tomato bushes. Carry out the first treatment a couple of weeks after planting seedlings in the ground, and then carry out every 10 days.