Good day. We are decorating our plot with my husband and in front of the entrance to the garage we made two decorative walls of stone. When they laid the first wall, they did not think of the need to wash off the concrete before it dries up. We thought we would clean up the excess with sandpaper. But it turned out that the sandpaper cleaned off large drops, and everything that had eaten into the stone remained unsightly (as in the photo). The second wall, taught by bitter experience, was immediately put in and the excess cement was washed off with water.
It turned out pretty well, but there is no clarity, brightness, or something. When you look at a photo on the Internet, the stone fences seem very beautiful, each stone stands out. Tell me how you can improve the look of a stone wall? Or is it all done with Photoshop?
How to wash the cement after repair? This question often arises if the interior of the apartment has undergone major changes. In this case, the windows change very often, even the layout of the rooms is subject to changes.
The peculiarity of cement is that after hardening it is almost impossible to destroy or damage it. Also, such a building mixture is perfectly combined with a variety of materials, be it wood, stone or metal. That is why cement is very often used in the repair process. Of course, stains and streaks on windows, walls and floors cannot be avoided, so you need to know how and how you can clean the cement yourself at home.
The easiest way is to wash the cement at home from various surfaces using special solvents that can be purchased at a hardware store. However, small stains and streaks can be washed even with folk remedies. In the material, we will consider both options in detail.
Any solvent for cement necessarily includes a strong acid or abrasive, which adversely affects the structure of concrete, destroying it. There are also solvents that do not contain acid. The detergent also contains inhibitors and auxiliary components that are responsible for protecting other surfaces from acid action.
As soon as you spray the selected solvent onto the concrete surface, the cement immediately begins to foam due to the action of the acid. By corroding the structure of the building material, the solvent turns cement into a slurry, which is very easy to remove from almost any surface. Most often, this removes traces of cement on glass, plastic frames, on paving stones or on various floor coverings. The following main characteristics of any solvent for cement can be distinguished:
You can purchase such products in two forms: a ready-made solvent or a concentrated composition. In the first case, all that is needed is to spray the prepared cleaning agent onto the surface that needs cleaning. As for the concentrated mixtures, they have yet to be diluted in accordance with the instructions on the package.
Also dilute the concentrated solvent mixture according to needs. For example, to remove large droplets and old stains, it is best not to dilute the mixture in water at all, but to use a strong concentrate. If you need to wash fresh concrete stains, then dilute the solvent in water in a ratio of 1: 5, respectively.
Remember that when working with some solvents, there is a possibility that the treated surface will change color. Therefore, try using the product on an inconspicuous area before cleaning.
It is also very important to observe safety precautions when working with a solvent. Be sure to arm yourself with heavy rubber gloves, a respirator and goggles. Further, the following sequence of actions should be observed:
After the procedure, all that remains is to dry the surface and check if there are any streaks..
If there is no solvent at hand or it is not possible to purchase it, then you can resort to improvised means and folk methods of removing cement.
The most affordable option is a mechanical method for removing dried concrete. It is quite laborious and will take a lot of time, but it will not require extra costs. To remove cement, use coarse-grain sandpaper, a hammer and chisel, and an ordinary spatula. If you try to soak the cement in advance, the process will go easier. In this way, you can remove dirt from ceramic tiles or plastic, as well as metal, but there is always the risk of damaging the surface. If the stains are small, hot water will help soften them, and then the mortar can be removed with a spatula.
We have collected the most popular folk remedies for removing cement stains in the table below.
One of the most effective ways to remove traces of cement from various surfaces if no solvent is on hand is to use sulfuric acid. The substance must be diluted in water at room temperature (1:10, respectively). The resulting solution must be poured into a cast iron container and heated. Further, it remains only to lower the object to be cleaned into the liquid. Note! This method is very dangerous for humans! When working with sulfuric acid, safety precautions must be strictly followed.
Less hazardous is the use of alkaline solutions that can be removed from old batteries. It is enough to moisten an old rag, which is not a pity to spoil, in liquid and apply the solution to the dirt. After ten minutes, loose concrete can be removed from the floor or windowsill.
Lemon juice is less effective in dealing with stubborn concrete stains, but at the same time such a remedy is completely harmless to humans. If there are minor traces of cement on the windows, glass or frame, simply cut the citrus and juice the dirt. After a few minutes of exposure, the cement will begin to dissolve, after which the building mixture can be removed with a damp cloth. Do not forget to thoroughly rinse the window and sill afterwards.
To quickly and efficiently wash cement stains from ceramic tiles or other surfaces, treat the stain with vinegar essence. After that, take a new sponge, soak it liberally in the liquid, and pour baking soda on top. Work on the contamination until the cement dissolves. If necessary, rinse the washcloth, submerge it again in the vinegar essence and add the baking soda.
If it happens that cement stains get on the carpet or other textile coverings, use acetone to clean the dirt. To do this, it is enough to take a cotton cloth, soak it in acetone and attach it to the place of contamination. Then you need to cover the fabric with thick plastic to provide a vacuum. Wait half an hour and remove the rag with acetone, and remove the concrete slurry with a spatula. If desired, treat the contamination with additional soapy water so that no streaks remain on the carpet or fabric.
All the products described in the table will help to quite effectively remove minor cement stains from various surfaces. However, it is much more practical to use a solvent that will surely handle any degree of contamination.
Having studied the proposed material, now you know how and with what you can wash the cement at home simply and quickly.
Any retaining wall is a structure erected to prevent soil collapse in areas where there are significant differences in the level of marks made during the design and preparation of the territory.
Retaining wall types The original solution of the retaining structure
Such walls are decorative and reinforcing. Depending on the complexity of the task at hand, the wall can be:
By their design, monolithic ones are divided into:
National teams are divided into:
The place of installation of the structure and the construction of a retaining wall can be a natural foundation, that is, rocky soil, or piles made right there.
The basis of any structure is a deep foundation (the depth of which is 1.5 times its width) or shallow foundation. Pillars, like buttresses, can be made from boxes installed in several tiers and filled with sand or coarsely fractional rubble.
When choosing the height of the retaining wall, you should pay attention to the size of the existing drop:
There are retaining walls and, depending on their design:
In addition, the size of the retaining wall is important, which is determined depending on the force of soil pressure, the wall's own weight, loads that do not go beyond the destruction prism.
When constructing this structure, the saturation of the soil with water and the presence of substances in it that are aggressive towards concrete are taken into account.
If your home is on or near a slope, you will need to protect it from possible ground movements. For this, it is best to make a retaining wall. Such walls are also arranged on flat areas as a decorative element. Retaining walls can be built independently. About what kind of retaining walls there are, how to make them and what they are for, is described in the article.
A retaining wall is needed to strengthen the soil in an area that is located on a slope or not far from it.
First of all, a foundation is needed for the retaining wall. It is located underground and takes up most of the load under ground pressure.
The next element in the design is the wall itself. It is presented in the form of a vertical structure made of durable material that will withstand the high pressure of the soil in case of its movement.
The last but important element of the retaining wall is drainage. It is necessary to drain water, which will not only save the soil from heaving, but also strengthen the wall itself.
So, the wall structure has three main elements:
In order for the wall to perform its functions correctly and reliably, it is necessary to carry out calculations.
Usually the walls are built about 1.5 meters in height.
The following parameters must be known for the construction of a retaining wall:
In addition to these basic parameters, you need to take into account the nuances that will affect the choice of material. These include the following parameters:
To erect a retaining wall, you can use wooden piles or boards, concrete structures, stone walls. Also, the retaining wall can be built from bricks or gabions.
The choice of material directly depends on the type of soil and its basic properties. It is important to take into account not only the depth of soil freezing and the level of groundwater, but also take measurements to determine the force of pressure, vibration and other parameters of the slope.
In addition to the vertical body itself, the retaining wall must have a sole; without it, the wall can collapse under soil pressure.
For the correct installation of the sole, you need to take into account that there is still a backfill force that keeps the soil from sliding. It also needs to be taken into account.
Do not forget about the friction force under the sole. The frictional force must be sufficiently high to ensure a reliable fixation of the slope. To do this, you need to select the appropriate material. The width of the sole is also important: the wider it is, the greater will be the frictional force that keeps the ground from moving.
An equally important feature is the height difference in the square. Knowing this difference, you can correctly choose the height of our future wall.
Wooden retaining wall:
A retaining wall made of wood is the most common.If the height difference does not exceed 1 m, then the logs should be 1.5 m each. That part of the log that will be in the ground must be soaked in special fluids that will protect them from getting wet and rotting. To install a wooden retaining wall, it is necessary to dig a trench 10 cm deeper than the length of the underground part of the log, and 20 cm wider than its diameter.
At the bottom of the trench, you need to put a sand pillow 15 centimeters wide. Tamp thoroughly. After that, put the logs in the dug ditch. To ensure the density of the wall, the logs can be tied with wire from above or nailed to each other. The back of the trench, where the tree touches the ground, is best paved with roofing material. When everything is ready, the trench is poured with concrete.
Concrete retaining wall:
Concrete walls are built on slopes with high soil pressure.
To install a concrete wall, it is necessary to dig a trench and install formwork so that the earth does not fall into the prepared trench, and only then fill up the sand and gravel. After laying the pillow, a reinforcing mesh is placed on top and concrete is poured.
We remove the formwork in 5-7 days. After that, you can give the wall an aesthetic look.
Retaining wall made of stone:
If you decide to build a retaining wall of stone, then its installation can be done both dry and using cement mortar. For a stone wall, granite, basalt or quartz are best suited. It is important to put a concrete foundation under it in order to protect it from subsidence.
To properly lay the stone wall, it is necessary to dig a ditch 10 cm wider than the width of the foundation. At the bottom, tamp a sand and gravel cushion with a layer of 30 cm, and then pour concrete. The foundation must be 15 cm below ground level. When the solution hardens, you can start laying the stone. If you are laying the masonry using cement mortar, then it is better to treat all voids with grouting material.
The stone wall has a stylish look.
Retaining wall made of brick:
Before laying a brick wall, it is necessary to pour the foundation. It fully matches the foundation for the stone retaining wall. If the height of your wall is no more than 1 m, then the thickness should be 250 mm. But if the wall is small (about 0.5 m), then its thickness should be 120 mm.
Please note that when erecting a retaining wall more than 1 m, its thickness must be at least 370 mm. This means that it is necessary to lay the wall in one and a half bricks.
Retaining walls made of gabions:
Gabion is a special metal container filled with stone. These walls are the easiest to install and are not expensive.
If the soil drop is not more than 1 m, then there is no need to build a foundation. If the height of the drop is higher than this value, then a strip foundation is placed under the gabion wall, similar to that used for masonry or brickwork.
After the completion of the construction of the foundation, gabions are laid on it, which are connected to each other with a wire. When the retaining wall is ready, its front side is covered with rubble or pebbles to give aesthetics.
In order to give the wall an attractive appearance, it can be slightly cultivated. For example: brick or concrete walls can be painted or painted somehow. In the walls of stone, you can make a beautiful neat masonry. Decorative masonry can also be made on a brick wall.
The height, thickness and material of the support wall are selected depending on the nature of the soil. Do not forget about drainage so that the water pressure does not add to the soil pressure. A properly built retaining wall will serve for more than a dozen years and will not allow the soil to move where it should not.
The main characteristic of a cement slurry is its strength. It is due to the ratio of cement and sand. The composition of the product can be changed per piece, which makes it possible to obtain several types of mixtures. Each of them is intended to be used in a specific environment. Therefore, it is important to properly prepare products during the construction of various facilities.
One of the criteria for dividing cement mixtures into types is the proportions of internal components. It is worth noting that only one brand of cement can be present in one composition. But they can also change, since the strength will depend only on the concentration of the components. They are conventionally divided into several brands.