Hello, dear friends - summer residents and gardeners!
For all of us, the hot season of sowing seedlings of vegetable and flower crops is coming. In one of my previous articles, I have already talked about which of the crops can be sown, starting in January. I want to remind you that such an early sowing requires you to create special conditions, without which the seedlings will not be able to grow and develop normally. Let's discuss what is needed for seedlings to grow strong and healthy.
This is the most important factor, and it must be taken into account from the moment of sowing seeds for seedlings. The optimal temperature regime necessary for the awakening of seeds is different for each crop. Cold-resistant plants (cabbage, onions, celery) can germinate at temperatures below 18 ⁰C, while thermophilic tomatoes, peppers, eggplants and cucumbers will only germinate at 20-30 C.
Therefore, it is advisable to keep the crops of cold-resistant plants on a cool windowsill, closer to the glass, and it is better to place containers with seeds of heat-loving flowers and vegetables next to the heater or put on the upper shelf in the kitchen.
Some gardeners use a heated towel rail in the bathroom to heat crops, and I keep them on a grate located at the back of the refrigerator: there is a temperature favorable for seed germination.
After the shoots appear, it is necessary to lower the temperature of the seedlings by a few degrees so that the young seedlings do not grow, but develop the root system. This condition must be observed for seedlings of any plants.
Another important requirement for proper growth and development of plants is sufficient and high-quality lighting. If you create the optimal temperature regime for the seedlings, but do not provide it with full-fledged lighting, the stems of the seedlings can stretch and thin out so much that they will fall down, because they cannot even withstand the weight of the cotyledon leaves.
The problem is that in winter and early spring, it is almost impossible to provide plants with full-fledged natural light in a dwelling, and you have to resort to additional lighting with artificial sources.
I have been using fluorescent fluorescent lamps for many years, but this is still not an ideal way to solve the problem: the grown tomato seedlings still stretch slightly, although I turn on the lamp early in the morning and turn it off and late at night. I grow quite a lot of seedlings in the winter, and now I also propagate indoor violets, and I want the plants to be beautiful and healthy. Therefore, this year I decided to purchase special phytolamps.
In search of optimal light sources, I had to search the entire Internet, read a huge number of reviews, weigh all the pros and cons, and as a result I purchased four different phytolamps. The first lamp is multispectral, with a power of 36 W, with additional spectra - far red and warm white, which are very important for growth, flowering and fruiting. This lamp completely replaces sunlight for plants, so seedlings under it can be grown anywhere in the apartment.
The second phytolamp is full x2 full spectrum, which, unlike other full spectrum lamps, has 6 additional diodes, providing a wider range with capture of green and far red spectra. Due to this characteristic, versatility is achieved, allowing the use of a phytolamp at different stages of seedling development. Another advantage of this model is that it illuminates plants with white light with a pleasant pink tint and is suitable for both additional supplementary lighting of plants on a windowsill and for illuminating plants located far from sunlight.
The third 15 W phytolamp I purchased has a full spectrum and is equipped with three additional diodes, which also makes it a universal lighting device and allows it to be used to illuminate all types of plants at different stages of development. The light from this lamp is also white with a slight pink tint.
And finally, the 36 W LED bicolor is the most powerful phytolamp with a universal red-blue spectrum perceived by any plant. The bicolor lamp is intended for supplementary illumination of plants, which either receive additional natural sunlight, or are illuminated by a white light lamp.
All these devices have a standard e27 base, so they can be screwed into the most common cartridge.
The third of the most important points is adequate and timely watering. You need to learn to maintain a balance between insufficient and excessive moisture in the soil, because a lack of moisture is just as bad for plants as an excess of it.
Plants cannot absorb the amount of elements from poorly moistened soil that will provide them with normal growth and development, and as a result, they will grow slowly, bloom late and give a poor harvest. And vice versa: in wet soil, plants suffer from a lack of oxygen, their roots stop breathing, rot, and the plants die.
With a strong waterlogging of the soil, and also against the background of a low temperature in the room, the seedlings of most crops are infected with black leg - a fungal infection that can kill all your seedlings in a matter of days.
Watering frequency depends on:
For example, tomato seedlings do not like to grow in constantly wet soil, and cabbage seedlings, like cucumber seedlings, need to be watered so that the soil is moist all the time. The ability to draw up a balanced watering regime comes only with experience, and no one will give you clear recommendations in this matter.
Water quality is of paramount importance to plants. In no case should the soil be moistened with tap water: it must be allowed to stand for at least a day. The best irrigation water is melt or rainwater, but if you add three percent hydrogen peroxide to the settled tap water, it will acquire approximately the same qualities.
If you follow all three conditions described in the article, your plants will be healthy and developed, and flowering and fruiting will come on time. I wish you strong seedlings and rich harvests.
Sections: Garden plants Growing seedlings
In the instructions, HB-101 is called a vitalizer, since it is not a fertilizer as such, but a mixture of substances with a biologically active effect, which:
The composition of the growth stimulator for plants HB-101 contains mineral and organic substances of natural origin. They are obtained on the basis of extracts of various perennial conifers (mainly pine, cypress and cedar). It also contains plantain extract and several active ingredients, the content of which is indicated in the table.
Compounds of potassium, sulfur, manganese, phosphorus, magnesium, iron
Vitalizer is available in 2 forms:
The composition of the product may vary slightly depending on the release formula. Judging by the gardeners' reviews, the HB-101 liquid solution acts faster than the granules.
Vitalizer is made in Japan
One of the most common forms of HB-101 release (pictured) is a 50 ml bottle.
The preparation contains nutrients and minerals (potassium, magnesium, iron, phosphorus and others) in an easily assimilable ionic form. Due to this, they very quickly dissolve in water and penetrate into the roots of the plant (or directly into the leaves and stems when applied by foliar application).
The stimulant has a powerful effect on the plant, activating the processes of cell division, due to which the culture gains green mass faster. The product contains saponin, which saturates the soil with oxygen, which is beneficial for the bacteria living there. They begin to quickly process organic substances, which are also easily assimilated by plant roots.
The stimulant does not directly protect plants from late blight. If spots and other signs have already appeared on the leaves, it is necessary to treat with a fungicide. However, there is an indirect effect of protection. If you add the drug to the soil, the culture will develop faster, and its immunity to diseases will be noticeably higher.
In the reviews of summer residents who used HB-101 according to the instructions, it is noted that the use of this drug really helps to prevent common infections:
Due to its complex chemical composition, this tool is universal, so it can be used for any crops:
In accordance with the instructions for use, HB-101 can be used both for seedlings and for adult plants. The dosage depends on the type of culture. Also, the seeds are treated with a solution a few hours before planting and the bulbs (immersed for 30-60 minutes).
Vitalizer NV-101 is consumed in small quantities, so one bottle is enough for a long time
How to calculate the sowing time for seedlings in March for a particular crop? It's simple: you need to know the peculiarities of the climate in your region and count 35-75 days from the most favorable date (this is the optimal age of plants for a particular culture). To this must be added another 7–8 days required for seed germination.
If in the center of Russia it is already possible to plant early varieties of tomatoes on May 20, then on March 18-19 it is time to sow them for seedlings. Etc.
In order to prevent the seedlings from stretching, it is necessary first of all to create optimal growing conditions in terms of temperature and illumination. But, we will talk in detail about the optimal conditions for growing seedlings in the following articles, now - about fertilizers.
If the conditions for growing seedlings are not as ideal as the plants need, then you can suspend stretching by applying potassium monophosphate KH to the plants.2PO4 , this fertilizer contains no nitrogen, and the general NPK formula looks like this: 0-50-33.
Nitrogen-free potassium monophosphate fertilizer.
To stop pulling seedlings with potassium monophosphate, it is necessary to feed 3-4 times in a row, i.e. if there is a need for the next irrigation of seedlings, add this fertilizer to the irrigation water at the rate of 10-15g. for 10 liters of water. Carrying out such dressings stops the development of the leaf-stem mass and this must be taken into account.
Top dressing with potassium monophosphate is also carried out in the later stages of cultivation, when the plant already has a sufficiently developed leaf-stem mass, but there is a need to increase the fruits (if we grow vegetables) or flowers (if we grow flowers).
It is best to plant the melon in peat pots right away, so as not to injure the roots during transplantation. When replanting, tear the peat pot slightly to make it easier for the roots to take root. The time to sow melons for seedlings is April 15–20. Then, by the time of transplanting into a greenhouse or greenhouse, the seedlings will be 30 - 35 days old. The melon is transplanted to a permanent place in the second decade of May.
After sowing melon seeds in pots, cover them with plastic wrap and place them in a warm place (the most comfortable temperature for germination of melon seedlings is + 20 ... + 25 ° С, with a minimum germination temperature of + 12 ... + 15 ° С).
When the first green shoots appear, remove the polyethylene, and put the melon seedlings on a sunny window, providing protection from direct sunlight. For optimal growth and development of melon seedlings, the temperature should be + 25 ... + 30 ° С. After transplanting to a permanent location (open ground or greenhouse), water the melon with warm water until it fully engages.
Spraying tomato seedlings with "Epinom" is carried out in the budding phase. Dilution of the drug with water: 1 ml per 5 liters of water. A solution of 3-4 liters per 100 square meters is used. In the same way, seedlings are treated when transplanted into the ground. It has been proven that the survival rate of tomato seedlings is much better than that of similar untreated plants.
What else is the use of spraying with Epin-extra? The growth stimulator solution reduces the accumulation of radionuclides, nitrates, and heavy metal salts. Also "Epin-extra" accelerates the formation of ovaries and prevents them from falling off. Thanks to the preparation, the seedlings do not stretch out. Spraying is carried out in the morning in calm weather. After completing all procedures, hands and face must be washed with soap.
A well-developed and healthy root system is the key to a future harvest. Therefore, for the intensive development of the root system of pepper and tomato, the growth stimulator Radifarm is used. Dilution rate: 200-250 grams per 100 liters of water. The stimulant should be applied to the soil at intervals of 10-12 days.
Zircon is also the most common growth promoter used by gardeners in pepper and tomato seedlings. Spraying is carried out after planting seedlings in the ground, as well as during the budding period. The rate of dilution of the stimulant with water is the same for both tomatoes and peppers: 0.1 ml per liter of water.
Gardeners have proven in practice that stimulants help plants better tolerate various stressful conditions: unfavorable weather, drought, pest infestations, temperature extremes, and so on.
Growth stimulants are readily compatible with many fungicides and insecticides. Therefore, you should not worry about the need to treat the planted seedlings with several drugs.