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The cucumber mystery proverb in the title is not the only one. You can find many more mysteries, sayings about this irreplaceable vegetable culture. It is difficult to imagine a vegetable garden in which there will not be at least one garden allotted for cucumbers.
In my suburban area, I grow this irreplaceable crop in three ways: in a greenhouse - for pickling and canning, in a barrel - the earliest for consumption in fresh and lightly salted forms, in a garden in the open ground, cucumbers settle when there is no left in the greenhouse for them places.
According to the latest data, new technologies of Dutch scientists make it possible to obtain harvests from greenhouse cucumbers more than 100 kg per square meter. On large greenhouse areas, a certain mode is maintained day and night, smart machines "listen" to plants and immediately fulfill all their requirements. And in our film greenhouses with an area of 10 square meters, where it can be too hot during the day, too cold at night, where the soil is far from ideal, and fertilizing is given according to our concepts, and not according to the true needs of plants, the yield is 10-15 kg per square meter - already fine. But tasty, fragrant and crunchy.
In my cucumber greenhouse 2 m wide in the center there is a passage 60 cm wide, the width of the beds on the sides is 70 cm.I plant modern greenhouse varieties, about 2.5-3 plants per square meter, and only in one row - it is more convenient to take care of them. It turns out two plants per running meter. If you plant it thicker, as some gardeners do, you get a jungle in which it is as difficult to find a cucumber among the leaves as a porcini mushroom in a dark forest. Therefore, the first rule when landing is not to be greedy. Sow as many plants per square meter as indicated on the seed bag.
About the soil. No matter how poor the soil on your site is, in the greenhouse it must be fertile, moisture-consuming and very loose, airy. Otherwise, the cucumbers will not work. If there is manure, then there will be no problems with the soil. But in the absence of manure, you have to carry into the greenhouse for many years everything that will ennoble it at least a little.
In the spring - compost, grass, in the fall - fallen leaves. I even collect all kinds of rot, as well as sawdust - I soak them first in a solution of urea or cow dung, then dig into the ground. In the summer I store hay, make rollers out of it, and in the spring I put them in the grooves that I dig on the planting beds in the greenhouse. I water it with hot water, cover it with earth, with a layer of 20 cm - let it "burn" and warm the soil. Well, if you manage to get manure and lay at least a small layer between the hay and the ground, then the combustion will go more actively. I monitor the acidity of the soil - it should be in the range of 6-6.5 pH. Otherwise, you will have to water the soil with water and chalk.
Sowing cucumbers. When preparing for sowing, I select only filled seeds. Purchased seeds, if they are not treated with anything and there is no warning inscription on the bag, I pickle in a dark solution of potassium permanganate for 20 minutes, then rinse them. I do not do any more processing. I usually sow dry seeds in holes 5 cm deep and 15-20 cm in diameter, two seeds per hole. I make holes by pressing cans into the ground. I pour warm water into them, and into the resulting mud I press the seeds to a depth of 1.5-2 cm. I immediately cover the holes with a film - for warmth and so that the water does not dry out. Sowing dates fall on May 15-25, depending on the weather. Shoots appear quickly. I remove the film immediately.
I tried to plant a couple of bushes with 25-day seedlings. However, while the seedlings took root, strong bushes had time to grow from the sown seeds, which practically caught up with the seedlings. Therefore, I did not observe a significant acceleration in obtaining the first cucumbers, but I received unnecessary trouble.
Care. In the stage of the second or third true leaf, the weaker plant in the hole, where two seeds were sown, I cut with scissors.
When the seedlings grow a little, root tubercles appear at the very bottom of their stems. Then I gradually fill the holes with fertile soil or humus. I add more earth to the stem to make a cone. Then, when watering, water will not fall on it. The plants will soon develop additional roots.
I water, like all my plants, not at the root, but stepping back from the stem by 10-20 cm. And only with heated water. During periods when there are cold nights - in June, August - I water in the morning; in July - in the late afternoon, because on warm nights, cucumbers grow not only during the day, but also at night. With each watering, I add a little top dressing to the water: superphosphate or calcium nitrate, Kemiru-kombi or Dorina, alternating them with herbal infusions - about 1/10 of the recommended dose. Once every 10-15 days I give a good feeding with slurry. Three weeks before the start of the salting epic, I completely stop nitrogen fertilizing, otherwise the cucumbers in the jars will be hollow inside or wrinkle. I feed only with ash, scattering a glass of this fertilizer for every square meter of the greenhouse. When the ground under the bushes is compacted, I sprinkle compost or humus on the surface - a layer of 2-3 cm at a time. I do not loosen, so as not to damage the roots.
About the formation of bushes. From the axils of the first four leaves, I remove everything that is going to grow from there. I prefer the simplest to fashionable styles of formation: I pinch all the side shoots without exception over the second sheet. I remove the whiskers, as they constantly cling to the stems, often crumple the leaves, pull the stem away from the twine along which it should grow. The main stem only grows upward, under the roof, to the ridge of the greenhouse.
About varieties. The fascination with new varieties, when I tried almost everything that the breeding firms offered, stopped. There are a lot of new varieties, and all of them are more suitable for large farms, because often their difference from each other, except for a couple of extra pimples, is increased resistance to one or another cucumber disease, which can appear in large greenhouses, but in our garden greenhouses - hardly. I stopped at varieties with the following properties: tasty and fragrant; beautiful; crunch in salted; productive. The most fragrant and tasty were, in my opinion, domestic varieties and hybrids, mainly from Hardwick, for example, hybrid F1 Manor, which has been growing in my greenhouse for many years.
It gives a harvest early and amicably, the greens are very even, even the pimples are beautifully located on them. Delicious when salted. I prefer bee-pollinated varieties and hybrids to parthenocarpics, because they are tastier and healthier. For example, the Lyalyuk variety is very aromatic, tasty, good in salting, gives high yields, bears fruit until late autumn. The disadvantage is very large leaves.
Modern foreign hybrids are very productive, they have a much thinner peel than domestic varieties and hybrids, however, the greens taste noticeably inferior to ours, they are suitable only for pickling and canning. Therefore, I grow only one of them - the German F1 hybrid Connie. In salting, it acquires the aroma of herbs that are packed in a jar, crunches well, cucumbers are very beautiful, and the yields are high. I respect the Dutch hybrid F1 Asterix. It tolerates underwatering well, bears fruit until late autumn.
I tried to grow varieties that do not give large side shoots. However, they have various minor flaws: either the shape of the fruit is not pleasant, then the pimples are of the wrong style, then the lateral lashes still grow large. Since I don't have so many bushes in the greenhouse, and I like to tinker with them, including pinching the side shoots, I decided not to mess with unfinished new products. It is better to use old, well-proven varieties and hybrids. They do not seek from goodness.
Fight disease... Diseases are the trouble of greenhouse cucumbers. From a very young age, spots may suddenly appear on the leaves, witnesses of diseases - anthracnose, ascachytosis and others. Here it is important not to miss the moment when there are still few spots, and immediately dust all the leaves with ash from all sides. You can pre-spray the leaves with water. Ash helps very well if you catch the onset of the disease. With a large number of stains, severely damaged leaves have to be removed. In this case, chemical treatment is avoided.
Gray rot - slimy stems, leaf stalks. To combat it, in my greenhouse there is always a glass with a pink creamy mass - a mixture of chalk, water and potassium permanganate. I wipe the rot with a bunch of grass or a cut off rough cucumber leaf, grease the wound with "sour cream".
Sometimes the plant suddenly stops growing, withers during the day. This is a consequence of either vascular bacteriosis, or root rot - happens from sudden changes in temperature in the greenhouse, from irrigation with cold water, and even under the stem, from excessive soil compaction during irrigation. This usually happens on acidic and poor soils, when the plants are very weak and cannot resist diseases. Here the easiest way out is to dig out the plant along with the soil, put fresh soil in the formed hole. The remaining cucumbers will be easier to live with.
I noticed that there are almost no diseases in a greenhouse if it is ventilated as often as possible, although there is an opinion that this tropical plant requires a tropical atmosphere and does not like drafts. Who loves them? A dangerous draft is when a stream of street air rushes into the sauna atmosphere. This means that there is no need to create this atmosphere of a bath. Let a dry sunny breeze walk in the greenhouse all day. This will add health to the plants, there will be no rot and fungus at all. The main thing is that every morning, as early as possible, when it is still cool outside, you need to open the greenhouse until it warms up, otherwise, if you open it later, you get a draft effect: the plant has already tuned in to tropical humidity, and suddenly a stream of cold air was given to its leaves ... There is something to shrink from.
When ventilating, you must first open the upper part of the greenhouse, and then the doors, so that the ventilation goes from top to bottom. This procedure is especially useful in the morning, when the air is saturated with a kind of "prana" - positive energy, absorbing which, the plants become healthy and cheerful right before our eyes. Together with the owner. The morning sun is the healthiest sun. At this time, the bees are already working in full force. Therefore, all activities in a cucumber greenhouse should be carried out in the earliest morning - at 7-8 o'clock. Whoever slept has lost part of the harvest.
In the morning, every day you need to look through all the plants, how to greet them, remove sores, whiskers, spent yellowed and diseased leaves, pinch the side shoots. Lubricate all wounds with "sour cream". In a day, the wounds will dry out.
By the evening, when the solar energy begins to decline, the greenhouse that has dried up during the day can be packed up by closing all the windows and doors. The heat will last longer. At this time, the most active growth of cucumbers is taking place. They are neither hot nor cold.
In August, when the nights become long and cold, you need to increase your vigilance, carefully examine the plants for rot. You will have to remove all the lower leaves and spent side shoots - this will make it easier to ventilate. Water less often and only in the morning in sunny weather. And don't forget to mulch the soil.
Pollination. A few days before flowering, I begin to teach insects to visit places near the greenhouse. To do this, I put bouquets of their favorite honey plants in buckets and bottles of water: borago, sweet clover, phacelia. I attract hoverflies with bouquets of blooming cilantro and dill umbrellas. In the afternoon I bring these bouquets to the greenhouse. When the cucumber plants bloom, I do a couple of surface watering of the soil with scented water, in which I soak the sweet clover flowers overnight. Insects quickly get used to visiting the greenhouse, finding a way out of it.
Read part 2. "Growing cucumbers in the garden and in the barrel"
L. Bobrovskaya, experienced gardener
It is necessary to remember some of the differences between growing greenery in a greenhouse and open field. In the greenhouse, the cucumber bush must be properly shaped to obtain a large harvest. Usually, part of the lateral shoots is removed. In the open field, there is no such need.
In a closed room, cucumbers need to be tied up, otherwise real plant chaos will result. There is more space in the garden bed, cucumber lashes can grow freely. In a greenhouse, bee-pollinated varieties should not be used, since access of insects to the room is limited or impossible.
Cucumbers need a tasty soil, light and fertile, with a neutral reaction (optimum pH 6.5-7).
The soil for plants should perfectly absorb and retain moisture. Ideal soil composition for greenhouse seedlings:
If your greenhouse is new and fresh, you need to prepare a special soil for cucumbers in the greenhouse in advance from the same amount of peat, humus and compost.
Before planting, remove the top layer of soil by 15-20 cm and fill in the prepared mixture.
The entire area is thoroughly watered with a 7% solution of copper sulfate (consumption 0.5 liters per square meter) or a solution of potassium permanganate (3 g per 10 liters of water) - this must be done for the sake of disinfection.
We dig up the soil well. Before planting in the ground, we apply fertilizers for digging, distributing to the entire depth of the fertile layer:
Every autumn, when all the remnants of the cucumber tops in the greenhouse are removed, we will need to treat all the lower parts of the greenhouse with a solution of bleach (40 g of lime per 12 liters of water).
If you live in cold regions with a harsh climate, you cannot do without "warm" beds of compost or fresh manure (for this, place manure or compost on a bed about a meter wide, cover it with loose soil 25 cm high and water it on top).
Biofuel will be very useful for northern latitudes.
◊ Biofuels. It is necessary to "start" a warm bed. To save valuable time, experienced northern gardeners have been laying biofuels in the fall.
To do this, a couple of trenches are dug along the greenhouse with a depth of 40-50 cm and a width of 40 cm.They are filled with fresh manure, covered with soil by 20 cm on top.
Then the cucumber piles in the greenhouse are covered with foil or acrylic for two weeks.
And in the spring, 2-3 weeks before planting in the beds, they make holes with a shovel handle every half a meter (do this even if the ground is still frozen).
2-3 pieces of quicklime are placed in each hole and poured with heated water. Then the piles are again covered with foil.
When extinguished, heat will be generated intensely - you will see the effect when they begin to fog up from the inside of the greenhouse window.
This heat is quite enough to "start" warm beds. With warm beds, growing cucumbers in a greenhouse will bring you an early and bountiful harvest.
It is possible to grow tomatoes and cucumbers together, but this will create certain difficulties.
Cucumbers and tomatoes are those crops that are found on the site of every gardener... They are grown in open and closed ground. Every gardener strives to get as much harvest as possible, but for this the plants must be provided with the most favorable conditions, which, often, can only be created in greenhouses. Therefore, it turns out that you can get a large harvest of tomatoes and cucumbers only if you grow them indoors.
But what to do: "Grow cucumbers and tomatoes in different greenhouses? Or you can grow tomatoes and cucumbers indoors together? And if so, how?". It is worth saying that tomato and cucumber are two opposite cultures. Each of them requires special conditions, soil composition, etc. It follows that it is impossible to grow tomatoes and cucumbers together. But is it?
Tomatoes are plants that need dry air. If the air is humid, then they begin to suffer from various diseases that are very dangerous for them. For example, late blight. It is greenhouse tomatoes that suffer from it more often than those that are cultivated in the open field. The reason for this is the high humidity in the greenhouse. An infected plant can hardly be saved. You can only prevent the occurrence of this disease by reducing watering. Therefore, in the greenhouse, tomatoes are rarely watered, 2-3 times a week and with extremely warm water. When watering, in no case should water fall on the foliage and stems of the plant, otherwise the above-described disease will occur. Watering should be done early in the morning so that the humidity level in the greenhouse decreases until the evening, in order to prevent the tomatoes from "sleeping" in the air with high humidity.
When growing tomatoes in a greenhouse, you need to take care of regular ventilation.... The air must be constantly or almost constantly in motion. It will also help to avoid fungal infections on tomatoes.
Tomatoes need chernozem soil with a high content of organic and mineral substances, especially tomatoes value phosphorus, potassium and nitrogen. The soil should retain moisture well, but not allow it to stagnate.
Cucumbers need a lot of moisture... Their leaves evaporate a huge amount of moisture, and if the air in the greenhouse is dry, then the roots simply will not have time to absorb the required amount of water, which means that the leaves will wither. Cucumbers need humid tropical air, therefore, if it is very hot in the greenhouse (and this is often the case) they try to humidify the air with all their might. For this purpose, the walls of the greenhouse are poured with water, the paths and soil around the cucumbers are poured.
Cucumbers do not tolerate airing... They love stagnant, heavy air. If the greenhouse is regularly ventilated, then the cucumbers will suffer greatly, look stunted and sick, and their fruits will be of poor quality, the yield will be significantly reduced.
This plant grows well on soils rich in humus, mineral and organic substances. Soils for cucumbers should retain moisture well, even create stagnation.
As we can see, tomato and cucumber are very different in their needs. So what can you do? Is it really necessary to build two different greenhouses, one specifically for tomatoes and the other for cucumbers?
The unequivocal answer is yes. But, you can try grow tomato and cucumber in the same greenhouse... This will take a lot of work.
You can make a kind of partition in the greenhouse that will separate the area in which tomatoes grow from the area with cucumbers... An ordinary polyethylene film stretched over a fishing line can serve as a partition. This will allow tomatoes and cucumbers to be grown in the same greenhouse, but they will not interfere with each other. Thanks to this method, you can easily create a suitable environment for them. The area with cucumbers can be well moistened, practically not ventilated, and the area with tomatoes, on the contrary, can often be ventilated and create dry air, rarely and in small quantities watering the plants.
It is also possible to grow these two crops in the same greenhouse without creating any partitions. But you have to constantly monitor the level of humidity and temperature, as well as determine the optimal level of ventilation in the room. To do this, you will have to purchase special equipment that allows you to perform these operations quickly and with high accuracy. This method is not very good, as it is not entirely expedient, but if you have a serious attitude, you can try it.
Another method is to plant in the greenhouse not only tomatoes and cucumbers, but also other crops.... For example, various greens: salad, dill, parsley, cilantro, etc. The greens will create additional moisture for the cucumbers, but without creating problems for the tomatoes. You can plant the closest relative of tomatoes: pepper. But, nevertheless, greens are preferable. It is worth saying that this method really works, but it is not very effective.
It is possible to grow tomatoes and cucumbers together, but this will create certain difficulties. The above methods are suitable for those who are not ready to build several greenhouses in their area or do not want to grow cucumbers or tomatoes in the open field. Still, tomatoes are not the best neighbors for cucumbers, and cucumbers, in turn, are not the best neighbors for tomatoes. Therefore, these two completely different crops are best grown separately.
In addition, I would like to say that it is better to grow tomatoes in a greenhouse, but cucumbers grow well in the open field.... If you want your cucumbers to grow indoors too, then you don't have to build a large greenhouse for them. It is enough to erect a small structure of plastic or metal arcs, and cover it with a covering material or ordinary plastic wrap. The same structure can be covered with polycarbonate, then you get a small greenhouse, specially created for cucumbers, which will last more than a year. In the spring, this structure can be used as a greenhouse in which seedlings of tomatoes, peppers, eggplants and other vegetable crops, as well as flowers, will be planted.
The creeping rough shoots of cucumbers are about 200 cm long, which end in a mustache, they catch on to the support. Five-bladed leaf plates are heart-shaped. The juicy, bubbly, polyspermous fruit has an emerald green color, its structure is typical for the Pumpkin. The varieties differ in the size and shape of the fruit. They are 95 percent water, and they also contain the following trace elements useful for the human body: iron, magnesium, phosphorus, calcium and vitamins - C, B1, B2, provitamin A. The juice of this fruit is considered a structured liquid that removes toxins well and toxins and has a beneficial effect on the human body. Such fruits contain iodine in compounds that are easily absorbed by the body.
Cucumbers, due to their taste in fresh or canned form, are popular, although the nutritional value and the presence of inorganic substances and vitamins in them are small. They promote the assimilation of food, are useful in diseases of the kidneys, liver, increased acidity of gastric juice, rheumatic diseases. Rich in iodine. In some emergencies, to whiten and moisturize the skin, they can provide an irreplaceable service: a gruel of fresh cucumber and egg white applied to your face will help you out. Wash it off with cool water. Cucumbers are useful for patients with diabetes mellitus. They improve metabolism, making it useful for obesity.
Cucumbers are grown by direct sowing or seedling. Plants with direct sowing are more resistant to adverse conditions. For sowing use three-, four-year-old seeds, since both young and old are less fruitful. Do not use fresh (last year's) cucumber seeds for sowing. Good lashes will grow from them with an abundance of sterile male flowers. Seeds of past years (2-3 years) produce lashes with a large number of female flowers, from which fruits are formed.
The seeds are used both purchased in the store and their own. To obtain them, the overgrown tetrahedral (female) fruits are left on the borage until they turn brown. They are then placed in the open air for full dosage before wilting begins. The husked seeds are washed and dried.
Before sowing the seeds are placed in lightly salted water. The ones that have emerged are removed, and those that have fallen to the bottom are washed and dried. Selected seeds (not hybrid varieties) are heated for 3 hours at a temperature of 50-60 ° C, stirring occasionally. For disinfection, they are kept for 20 minutes in a 1% solution of potassium permanganate and then washed well in running water. The acceleration of plant growth and development is facilitated by the treatment of seeds for 12 hours with a mineral solution (10 g of saltpeter and superphosphate, 0.2 g of manganese sulfate per 1 liter of water) or for 3 hours with an ash solution (pour a tablespoon of ash with 0.5 liters of warm water and insist for a day, strain). Then they are washed and dried. It is advisable to pre-soak and harden the seeds.
Sowing cucumbers (no more than six per square meter) only into moist soil when it warms up to 15-20 ° С during the day and not lower than 8 ° С at night. Planting depth - 2 cm. Crops are mulched with peat or humus.
Cucumbers are grown both outdoors and indoors. In all cases, initially, before the establishment of constant warm weather, the beds in the open field should be covered with foil or temporary greenhouses with a height of 80 cm should be arranged, the crate of which is later used as a good trellis for plant lashes.
Both in the open field and in the greenhouse, it is useful to cover the seeds with glass jars or plastic bottles with a cut off the bottom - the seedlings will appear faster and will be protected from hypothermia.
When growing cucumbers in a seedling method, it is impossible not only to deepen the seedlings with cotyledon leaves, but also to sprinkle the stem from the root to these leaves, so as not to stimulate the disease of plants with root rot.
Cucumbers require heated alkaline soils, well fertilized with manure in the fall. They develop well between plantings of tall plants: corn, tomatoes, dill, beans, beans. In open ground, cucumbers are sown at the end of May in rows at a distance of up to 1 m between them and 20 cm between plants. While the plants are developing and do not yet cover the entire area, the spaces between the rows are planted with kohlrabi cabbage and lettuce.
In long-leaved varieties, after the appearance of the fifth true leaf, the tip is pinched, since the female flowers and ovary are located on the lateral shoots, and mainly male flowers are formed on the main stem, which are necessary only for pollination. Their pollen is heavy, so plants are pollinated mainly by insects. The lateral shoot is also pinched, this contributes to the acceleration of fruiting. Still, it is advisable to sow several varieties, since most of them are cross-pollinated.
Breeders have created hybrids and self-pollinating varieties, plants of the female flowering type. But even when growing them, a pollinator should be planted on three or four plants - a plant with a sufficient number of male flowers.
The optimum air temperature for plant growth and development is 25-28 ° C, soil - 20-22 ° C. They grow at an air temperature of at least 15 and not higher than 35 ° C. The temperature regime in the range of 8-10 ° C leads to rapid disease and death of plants.
The use of transparent film mulch accelerates growth and increases productivity by one and a half times. The prepared and filled soil is covered with a light film, its edges are covered with soil. In the film, with a knife at a distance of 30 x 70 cm, cross-shaped cuts of 10 x 10 cm are made, into which three seeds are sown to a depth of 1.5-2 cm, watered and sprinkled with peat or humus. After the emergence of shoots and the formation of the first true leaf, two strongest plants are left in the nest, the third is pinched or cut out, but not pulled out. Further care of the plants is similar to the usual sowing. It includes watering, hilling, loosening row spacings, top dressing, etc.
A high yield of cucumbers cannot be with weak leaf growth. Therefore, even before flowering, plants must receive a full dose of nitrogen fertilizers. During this period, foliar top dressing with urea (5-10 g per bucket of water) is also carried out, both separately and in combination with the same amount of superphosphate and potassium fertilizers (do not use chlorides).
Top dressing is carried out on poor light soils three to four times per season, on fertile ones - one or two with a solution of mullein (1: 10), chicken droppings (1:20), wood ash (2 glasses per bucket of water). The mullein solution can be strengthened by adding 60 g of garden mixture to 10 liters of water. From mineral fertilizers, superphosphate (10-20 g), ammonium sulfate (15-20 g) are used. During the fruiting period, it is desirable to water cucumbers with potassium permanganate, dusting with wood ash. You can also feed with complex fertilizer.
Weakened plants are treated with a urea solution (a tablespoon in a bucket of water) from below, preferably in the evening. If necessary, foliar feeding is repeated after a decade with Kemira Lux. Plants need boron and magnesium. The borage sprayed with them better preserves the ovary and female flowers, which increases the yield. Boric acid is dissolved in very hot water.
Cucumbers, more than other crops, need a growth stimulant. It should be applied with the appearance of several true leaves, at the beginning of flowering, during mass flowering and another 7 days after the previous treatment.
To determine the need of plants for fertilizers, monitor them. If the upper part of the fruit, where the flower was, is pointed, there is not enough nitrogen. It is necessary to feed the mullein or bird droppings with a solution. If the fruits are narrowed towards the stalk, and the top becomes spherical, potassium and phosphorus must be added.
Nitrogen starvation brightens the borage leaves, the plants weaken, their growth is suspended. It promotes the vegetation of cucumbers, and, consequently, fruiting by spraying plants with colloidal sulfur.
Hilling is carried out after the appearance of the third leaf very carefully so as not to damage the superficially located roots. The first loosening of the row spacings is carried out to a depth of 10-15 cm, the subsequent ones - up to 5 cm, leaving a protective zone from the stem of 5-10 cm.
Cucumbers are susceptible to numerous bacterial and viral diseases. Many of them are the result of violations of agricultural technology.
Often the cucumbers have just bloomed, and the lower leaves have turned yellow (especially in the greenhouse). All leaves gradually lose their color. The plant bears fruit poorly and dies. This is most likely a verticillary disease that occurs when the temperature and humidity of the air are high in the greenhouse and very harmful drip condensation forms on the inside of the film. Heat and humidity should be returned to normal immediately. If the disease is at an early stage, the yellowed leaves should be cut out with a sharp knife and the plants should be treated with onion peel infusion. In other cases, diseased plants are removed and burned. To prevent disease, keep the soil around the base of the stem always dry. Water the beds in the early morning, before the onset of heat, with warm water (20-22 ° C).
Sowing should not be delayed. It is better to plant the most early ripening varieties. It is useful to carry out prophylactic spraying in the phase of two or three true leaves with a 1% solution of Bordeaux liquid, the second - in a week. Can be sprayed with chalk or slaked lime (100 g per 10 l of water).The resulting alkaline environment on the leaves inhibits the development of the disease.
The massive defeat of borage by downy mildew (peronosporosis) is suppressed by a solution of nitrogen fertilizers (1 g of urea per 1 l of water). The whole plant is treated with this solution, which causes the growth of new lateral shoots, which will bear fruit.
Peronosporosis is also fought with such contact drugs as cuproxat, oxychom, penkats eb, copper oxychloride. Plants are treated with them in the first decade of July. Considering that the drug of contact action affects the disease or insects only with direct contact, the whole plant should be sprayed. Therefore, a second treatment after a decade with a systemic preparation is necessary, which is absorbed and spreads with juices throughout the plant - acrobat, alanide, alufate, etc. Treatment of both strobe and carbendazim is effective. In these cases, the soil around the plants is also cultivated. Previously, peasants sprayed borage with a solution of whey (3 liters of whey per 7 liters of water), to which, after stirring, a teaspoon of fashionable vitriol was added. And yet, the main thing in the fight against this disease is prevention, treatment with 1% Bordeaux liquid up to three times with an interval of 7-10 days.
During the fruiting period, the plantings are sprayed alternately with infusion of garlic (200 g per bucket of water) and a solution of potassium permanganate.
Contact drugs are fighting against bacteriosis.
Of the pests, the greatest danger to cucumbers is the spider mite and whitefly. In the fight against them, biological methods are used, plants are treated with decoctions and infusions of pharmacy chamomile, potato tops, dope, tobacco, onion husks, dandelion, horseradish, wood ash.
A soap-copper solution is used against spider mites, aphids and fungal diseases. To prepare it, 200 g of soap and 20 g of dry mustard are dissolved in 9 liters of water. Pour into the resulting mixture in a thin stream, stirring constantly, a solution of copper sulfate (20 g).
It is advisable in the spring to spray plants with two different chemical preparations, which gives better results than repeated treatment in the late summer period.
The green mass of borage is many times greater than the mass of the roots, due to which the plants need frequent watering. In the initial period, the soil is moistened every week, later - after two to three days. Drying of the soil during fruiting is completely undesirable. During this period, when watering, up to 3 liters of water are consumed for each plant. Cool water oppresses plants, stimulates their disease. The same happens when the cucumber lashes lie directly on the ground. Better to let them lie on the green grass. Water the plants along the grooves formed in rows or around the plants. When watering, do not moisten the stems. Loosening is required after watering. Plants must be huddled, which to some extent keeps them from being directly moistened.
To facilitate proper watering, feeding, picking fruits, care, in the open field they arrange trellises along which the plants weave. To this end, in greenhouses, the lashes are tied up with twine (loosely) at the base with fastening in the upper part of the greenhouse.
In open ground and small-sized film shelters, it is better to grow short-leaved varieties. Zelentsy are relatively small and versatile in purpose.
To improve lighting and air exchange, simplify the care of lashes and collect greens with borage growth beyond the height of a small-sized greenhouse (at this time, frosts are excluded), drive in at the ends and in the intervals between them, every 2 m, stakes with a height of at least 1.5 m, pull a couple of rows of wire over them or nail slats, and your labors will be compensated for by an increased harvest of fruits.
When growing cucumbers in open ground without trellis, the aisles are used not only for plants with a short ripening period, but also for corn, dill, beans, with which cucumbers get along well. They are not friends with potatoes and aromatic herbs, with the exception of dill.
Throughout the growing season, cucumber plants must be formed. When the plant reaches a height of about 30 cm, lateral shoots appear in the leaf axils. They are removed. In the future, when new shoots and fruit ovaries appear, an ovary with one or two leaves is left on them, the rest of the shoot is pinched. A new escape is coming soon. They do the same with him as with the previous one. Fruiting lashes should be cut out without leaving hemp. Such a formation of a bush accelerates fruiting, increases the yield.
During the growing season, it is necessary to remove faded male flowers that are prone to decay and the spread of fungal diseases. Do not forget to remove the yellowed lower leaves as well. In the second half of the growth, it is necessary to cut out excess shoots.
Sometimes zelentsy has an unpleasant bitter taste. This is the result of a violation of agricultural technology. Most often, such a cucumber grows with a lack of moisture, thickening of the planting and weak aeration in this regard, with a lack of nutrition, high or low temperature conditions. Especially the taste of greenery is lost on dry beds in hot weather or when overheated in the greenhouse due to lack of sufficient ventilation.
Cucumbers are harvested with greens, preventing overripening, as they deplete plants and inhibit the growth of young fruits. You need to collect them in the morning or evening.
It is better to process cucumbers fresh after six hours in cold water.
Before choosing what is best to plant in a greenhouse, you should pay attention to a number of factors: local conditions and characteristics of the sales market. Experienced gardeners who prefer to grow greenhouse plants for business purposes are of the opinion that flowers can make the most of their profit. Next in the ranking of profitability is the business selling greens, vegetables and mushrooms with berries.
The flower business is characterized by high profitability: thanks to the quick recoupment of costs (in about 12 months), it will be possible to make a net profit in the following years. In order for such a business to have a high level of profitability, some features should be taken into account:
Choosing such a greenhouse business, you will encounter a number of disadvantages in the form of a lack of high demand all year round, the need to quickly sell garden flowers and the peculiarities of their transportation.
Since the flower business has a number of difficulties, many summer residents prefer to grow greens in a greenhouse facility for sale. Although the cost of greenery is inferior to flowers, but the profitability of such a business is at a high level. The reason for this is the need for green plants all year round. Before planting greens in a greenhouse, you should know some of the features of such a business:
A greenhouse business for growing vegetables is no less profitable if a number of rules are followed. According to experts, in order to achieve high yields, summer residents should not plant several crops under one roof, which have different characteristics and needs for watering and temperature. The choice of vegetables that should be planted in the greenhouse is influenced by a number of factors: the market value of each type of vegetable, the need for the population, the ability to properly organize painless transportation and storage of crops, etc.
If you have definitely decided to grow vegetables in a greenhouse facility, then you can give preference to fast-growing crops such as Chinese cabbage and radishes. The process of growing and storing such crops is not difficult. If you properly organize the planting and cultivation of such crops, then throughout the year you can achieve high and reusable yields, as well as continuous implementation. Choosing crops for business, many people prefer cucumbers because of their rapid growth, excellent storage and relatively high cost. Other equally popular crops for growing in a greenhouse and subsequent sale are tomatoes and peppers, which are characterized by a high cost. But when growing demanding tomatoes and peppers, you can face a number of difficulties.