Currently, there are many different breeds of chickens of the same or combined direction of productivity. Selection of successful breeds was carried out in ancient Egypt. And since then, the process of gene modification has been actively developing. Today, breeders are able to obtain a chicken that meets the required productive and decorative characteristics. In this article we will talk about egg-laying purebred birds, what they are and their characteristics.
When choosing the right breed, it is easy to get confused and make the wrong choice. Therefore, in order to make the right decision, you should thoroughly approach this issue and collect the necessary information.
Leghorn is a popular egg-laying breed in America, Europe and Central Asia. The bird has earned such popularity due to its adaptive abilities and high egg production. Leghorn is a highly productive breed, therefore it is grown both in large enterprises and at home. The bird is calm and friendly, quickly getting used to the owner. Easily tolerates temperature extremes.
As for the shortcomings, the Leghorns have a significant drop in egg production in the second year of life. Experienced farmers and poultry farmers advise changing poultry every year and a half. But, due to the fact that this breed does not have an instinct for incubation, eggs have to be incubated in an incubator, thrown to other chickens or bought new young.
Lohmann Brown is a popular German meat and egg breed, originally developed in Germany. Although the bird is of a combined type, it gained its fame due to its high egg production.
This commercial cross-laying hen starts laying on 135 days.
Large breed of highsex brown chickens of brown egg color. Hisex Brown adapts quickly to the environment, but despite this, the bird needs good care and a large area for walking.
For maintenance, you need a ventilated chicken coop, without strong drafts, with constant lighting and straw (hay) bedding. The room temperature in winter is not lower than +12 degrees.
The Andalusian blue is an exotic breed that belongs to chickens of meat and egg direction. Chickens are popular among poultry houses because of their appearance; they are bred in small private plots for decorative purposes.
It is appreciated for its egg production and tender meat. The disadvantage is the lack of maternal instinct, therefore it is bred by specialists.
An adult bird weighs 2-2.5 kg. In the first year of life, egg production is 180 pcs. weighing 60g. Puberty occurs at six months of age, the survival rate of newborns is 93%, and in adults - 87%.
Breckel is one of the very first representatives of the egg direction chickens. The bird has good immunity and good health. The meat tastes like game, which is why it is appreciated. The breed is large, roosters weigh up to 2-2.75 kg, and chickens - 1.75-2.25 kg. The color is golden or silver.
The Hamburg breed is a decorative and sports variety of chickens. The bird is productive and hardy, white with black spots in color. It is possible to keep two or more roosters, as they are friendly and do not attack each other. The weight of an adult rooster is within 2-2.5 kg, and for hens - 1.5-2 kg.
Hamburg chickens live in families, the head of which is a rooster.
The Italian partridge (brown or brown Leghorns) is one of the first birds of the egg direction. Thanks to excellent genetics that have been passed down from generation to generation, layers have high egg production and survival rates, as well as strong adaptive abilities. Chickens are common in Russia and European countries.
Most of the farmers and poultry breeders who breed this breed speak well of it. They especially highlight the fact that chickens are calm in character, unpretentious in the way of keeping, and have great productivity.
Minorca chickens are a decorative species that has an amazing color - it is black with iridescent green shades. The comb of a rooster is of an interesting shape, somewhat reminiscent of a crown, while that of a chicken is small, beautiful and slightly inclined. The lobes are large, white.
Minorca is especially appreciated for the excellent taste of meat, which is also pure white in color.
B-33 is a type of mini egg direction created in Russia. Nowadays they are becoming more and more popular as they are great for small households.
In England and France, B-33 chickens have almost completely replaced the local poultry due to their productive qualities.
Ushanka or Ukrainian earflaps - common in southern Russia and Ukraine. It is often bred for decorative purposes due to its bright color and interesting appearance. The weight of adults is: rooster - 2.8-3 kg; laying hen - up to 2 kg.
After the collapse of the Soviet Union, both countries (Ukraine and Russia) began to consider the Ushanka as their breed, although the origin of the bird was never determined.
The number of Ushanka has recently decreased significantly, since the productive indicators are below average, and mainly private and collection farms are engaged in breeding.
The High Line is a well-established bird with no major flaws. Calm and unpretentious, friendly to other farm animals. Thanks to its good immunity and high vitality, chicken is considered highly profitable.
Experienced farmers note that High Line chickens are well bred both in large poultry farms and in small home areas. Separately, it is worth noting that this bird must be vaccinated on time, otherwise the almost complete extinction of the livestock cannot be avoided. As for the conditions of detention, there are no individual requirements.
Hisex White stands out among other breeds of the egg direction in that high egg production is matched by low feed costs.
The owner collects about 280-330 eggs per year. The eggs are dense and highly nutritious. The meat is quite tough.
Shaver Red Layers are well known for their high egg production and low feed intake. The breed is one of the calmest and friendliest birds, which makes it stand out from the rest of the crosses. Was bred in Holland. No significant deficiencies or deviations were noticed.
Regardless of which breed of chickens you choose, do not forget that egg-type poultry is the most common type in the poultry industry, since eggs and egg products are always in price.
Over the entire period of breeding work, about 50 breeds and crosses of chickens of the egg direction have been created and improved: they all have their own characteristics and productive indicators that allow you to choose a more profitable breed.
Highly productive laying hens provide benefits for both conventional farms and poultry farms. Egg birds stand out against the background of meat breeds by the following characteristics:
You can buy day old chicks and wait until they grow up to understand that there are more males in the herd than females. And you can buy young animals, relying on the characteristic exterior signs when choosing.
A young hen should be mobile, without obvious signs of illness, she should not sit on the floor.
Signs of good egg production can be:
When buying an egg breed on the market, you should carefully look at the pigmentation of the beak. The more productive the hen is, the faster it disappears.
This question is often asked by poultry farmers. Good question, but there are no “best” chicken breeds. And there is no such breed that would be suitable for all purposes and for any conditions (climatic, economic, etc.).
Of the egg breeds, of course, Russian white chickens are very good. And many of the poultry farmers prefer to breed Leghorn chickens, considering them the most egg-laying. But this is not entirely true: some Leghorns produce 200 eggs or more per year, while others lay only 100-120 eggs. The reason is not only in the breed. It means a lot from which farm the chickens were purchased. In one farm, poultry farmers have worked for many years on the selection of the best layers and received from them a herd with remarkable qualities; in other farms, they did not. And, of course, it is more interesting to purchase eggs for breeding from chickens from such a farm where the egg production is high (or even better - to get eggs from record holders!). But sometimes the poultry farmer is primarily interested in the weight of the egg (for example, to work on improving local chickens on this basis - the size of the eggs). Then he acquires chickens that produce large eggs.
Others need to have hardy chickens suitable even for harsh climates. Often for this they use local chickens, the so-called mongrel, or their crosses. Local chickens significantly increase egg production if they create good conditions, and do not keep half-starved in a leaky barn in severe frosts.
Sometimes on the farm it is desirable to breed chickens not of one breed, but two. In this case, the poultry farmer can receive hybrids every year, and they are usually larger and more egg-producing.
But there are lovers of beautiful, decorative chickens. Well, is that bad? Perhaps you will also want to buy a couple of such chickens in order to admire the unusual bird during the hours of rest. Very interesting are Cochinchins, Brama, Bantamki, Paduanka, Dutch with white crest, dwarf Cochinchins. Or maybe you are interested in Yurlov's vociferous ones? The old poultry farmers loved to listen to the Yurlov roosters!
Therefore, when choosing a breed for breeding, you first need to identify which of them attracts you the most. Then find out if you can create the necessary conditions for this breed. Will you be able to provide the chickens with an abundance of feed, provide suitable walking and place to keep? Will you have enough time to take care not only of the health of the poultry and cleanliness in the poultry house, but also of your professional level, of replenishing the knowledge that every poultry breeder should have? Success appears where the needs of the breeds are met and the breeding conditions are met. Anything can happen in every farm, but an experienced poultry breeder will be able to eliminate undesirable phenomena and solve the problems that have arisen.
If there are inconsistencies between the existing conditions of the poultry farmer and the needs of the breed that interested him, then he should focus his attention on the less whimsical breed.
Chickens of all breeds (except for egg and meat hybrids that do not need walking, but are in constant climatic conditions) must be released on a walking area, regardless of whether it will be walking with or without vegetation. The walking environment is the same natural conditions with average daily and average annual temperatures, precipitation, air humidity, air pressure, with the duration of individual seasons, vegetation, sunlight, etc. These conditions, especially temperature, affect the choice of breed. For example, light egg breeds are more sensitive to temperature fluctuations in colder areas than heavy and large breeds of meat and egg production.
These differences can be minimized by an attentive poultry farmer by setting up an insulated poultry house, feeding the birds enough, choosing the breeds that will best adapt to the given conditions, etc.Breeders interested only in chicken egg production are advised to consider the suitability of individual breeds for a given area.
Poultry breeding is an exciting experience. By selecting all the best and the best young growth in each generation, you can achieve remarkable results: enhance the desired traits, weaken those that you want to get rid of, and in the end get a beautiful bird.
First of all, it is necessary to clearly outline the type of bird desirable for a given breed, of course, taking into account the biological characteristics of the livestock and the conditions of feeding and keeping. Nowadays, collection farms, as well as individual amateur poultry farmers, have rare breeds of poultry. The history of many of them goes back centuries. They were formed in the conditions of peasant farms by crossing local mongrel birds with cultivated breeds.
Breeders were usually selected according to egg-laying, live weight, and in some cases - according to sports characteristics (a drawn-out low voice in Yurlov roosters, a fighting type of Tula geese, etc.). Singling out, for example, to the tribe of roosters in terms of the strength and duration of singing, they contributed to the development of their chest, and this entailed a heavier body, improved meat qualities.
In household poultry, the method of mass selection of poultry is the most accessible. It is based on the selection of males and females based on their appearance.
A good laying hen can be distinguished by such data: the head is wide and moderately long eyes are lively, shiny, convex back is wide, straight tail straight chest convex plumage smooth, shiny wings tightly pressed to the body belly soft large muscles of the legs well developed fingers straight, good placed. In roosters, the chest is more developed, and in chickens, the pelvic part of the body. The body of the female expands towards the tail, and of the male towards the chest. A good rooster has developed bones and muscles, a rounded chest, a straight keel, and shiny plumage. It has a bright red erect crest and a bushy tail.
In poultry of meat species, special attention is paid to the development of those parts of the body where the muscles are most developed. It is important to take into account the width and length of the back, the width and bulge of the chest, body weight, energy, mobility of the bird.
How long can a breeding bird be used? In individual farms, chickens, geese, ducks, and guinea fowls are often kept for 5 years or longer. But the meat obtained from slaughter at this age is less tasty and tender than from a younger bird.
However, the bird of the most valuable breeds, if it remains productive, can be kept longer - to obtain breeding young. The quality of the producer significantly affects the viability and productivity of the offspring, because he is one in several females.
To improve the livestock of the poultry yard, it is necessary to have breed males so that they come from highly productive parents. Manufacturers should not have defects in development. You need to select the most typical for the breed that you intend to breed on your farm. One male can be kept for 10-12 chickens of the egg breed, 9-10 chickens of meat breeds, 5-6 ducks, 10-12 turkeys, 3-4 geese, 4-5 guinea fowls.
If the livestock in your yard is small, with prolonged breeding, the bird will degenerate: viability will decrease, various deformities will begin to appear. The reason for this is inbred depression (closely related breeding). This is why it is necessary to exchange males with other bird lovers.
Recently, chickens of the Brama and Cochinchin breeds have appeared in the backyards of poultry yards. The roots of these livestock come from a limited number of farms, so poultry degeneration is difficult to avoid. Some resort to what they think is an effective technique. Wanting to refresh, for example, the blood of white Cochinchins, a Cochinchin rooster with black plumage is allowed near the chickens. In the next generation, white Cochins are reunited with a white rooster. But when crossing white chickens with black chickens, a certain new type of heredity of the livestock is loosened, and useful traits may not appear in new generations.
How to be? If you can't bring a male of your breed from some new farms, exchange roosters with each other. Let them come from the same nest, yet their "residence" in different climatic zones seems to move them away from each other, the harmful influence of related breeding is smoothed out.
Breeding chickens is a profitable and profitable business. An adult chicken provides not only tasty dietary meat, but also eggs, the consumption of which is growing every year.
In view of what, people who have at their disposal free space in the country are trying to acquire and breed egg-laying chicken breeds. However, when choosing a bird for a mini-farm, the question arises, what is the most egg-laying breed of chickens?
It is difficult to unequivocally answer the question of which purebred hens or cross is better. The fact is that this moment depends on whether the breeder plans to replenish the livestock or create a new herd. At the same time, most farmers note:
As a rule, the active egg production of the cross appears in the first two years. Then, the number of eggs decreases. In view of this, it is recommended to renew the livestock every 3 years.
Currently, breeders have created a huge number of breeds and crosses of layers. There are chickens of the meat and egg direction or bird species that have a high egg production rate. Therefore, we will describe the popular ones so that novice farmers do not get confused in so much information.
So, the best egg-laying chicken breeds:
The egg variety has a number of distinctive features compared to other birds.
Therefore, before introducing you to the egg-laying record holders, it is worth briefly going through the description:
Well, perhaps that's all, now let's take a closer look at each variety.
Leghorn is popular in Europe and America. Due to a number of advantages:
However, in addition to the advantages, this breed has a number of disadvantages:
Important: Chickens of the Leghorn breed were the first to be used when crossing and breeding new varieties of layers. Therefore, we can safely say that most of the crosses popular today are the descendants of this beautiful bird.
The rest is a bird with a beautiful posture, a small crest and a luxurious crescent tail. In order to grow this breed, the farmer needs to be careful about the quality of feed and living conditions. Because the Leghorns are very demanding.
Spanish breed of chickens, which has successfully taken root in our latitudes. This variety has a number of advantages, among which the following should be highlighted:
As for the shortcomings, they include the following:
Important: A sharp drop in temperature values negatively affects this breed. In view of what, the chicken coop where Minorca is kept must be well insulated.
In general, the Minorca breed is considered one of the best. Despite the late laying of eggs, birds are able to lay well for 5-6 years. Therefore, frequent change of livestock will not be required.
German champion in the number of eggs laid per year. This cross appeared more than 30 years ago and today is very popular not only in private farmsteads, but also in the largest poultry farms.
And all thanks to a number of advantages of this variety:
However, despite a number of advantages, Loman Brown also has disadvantages, such as:
Lohman Brown has one interesting feature. Knowing her, even if you begin to acquire chickens of this variety from your hands, you will never be deceived. Laying hens of this cross are red in color. And the cockerels are white.
And finally, given the high egg production, vitamin supplements must be added to Loman Brown feed. Otherwise, the eggshell will be weak, which will negatively affect their presentation.
And one more thing, if the birds are kept in brooders without walking, you need to strictly control the quality of the feed. Otherwise, there is a risk of reducing the number of clutches.
This type of cross has a lot in common with the Leghorn breed. However, there are several differences:
Hysex Brown hybrid is the leader in terms of the number of eggs laid per year. In addition, this breed has a number of other advantages:
Important: The Hisex Brown cross is considered the most prolific and tenacious. Therefore, the demand for this variety is always high.
This breed must be grown in good conditions. The quality of the feed is also important, it must contain mineral supplements and multivitamins.
And the rating of the best egg-laying breeds is completed by the Hungarian Tetra chickens. This is a unique variety that combines high egg production and good weight. However, despite the undeniable advantages, Tetra is still not so common in small private farms. Therefore, we tell you why it is worth starting Tetra:
Hungarian Tetra is a unique cross that will delight the poultry farmer not only with delicious eggs, but also with a decent meat mass. Moreover, reviews about this hybrid are only positive and say that the survival rate of chickens reaches 99%.
How to choose the right breed of laying hens for your backyard? It is rather difficult to answer this question. After all, you need to take into account not only the advantages of breeds and crosses, but also their disadvantages.
In addition, the available conditions of detention are taken into account. Therefore, in this matter, we can recommend several rules, adhering to which a novice poultry breeder will be able to choose a suitable option:
Last but not least, always follow the rule of thumb when choosing chicks, what you expect from poultry, egg production records, or delicious poultry meat. And remember, even the biggest records don't last long.
In order for the chickens to rush more, you need to properly organize their care. One of the most important aspects is the area for keeping birds and feeding, namely:
Experience shows that it is better to breed and raise egg-laying chickens in a private backyard. These breeds and crosses are undemanding to care for, feed costs are insignificant, and such birds will please with the first eggs already in the fifth month.
And in conclusion, we note that a good egg production rate largely depends on properly organized care and the choice of a cross. Therefore, if you are planning to start breeding birds, first study the best varieties, and then decide which birds will decorate your yard.
Chickens of the egg direction are distinguished by a dense constitution and a slightly elongated tail. The crest is usually erect, the lobes are large. Such birds have a number of similar characteristics by which they can be distinguished.
The nature of such birds depends only on the breed. There are species with a good-natured disposition, not shy, inquisitive. And there are breeds even with high productivity, but aggressive, which do not tolerate loud sounds and quickly fall into stress.
The actual productivity of hens does not always follow breed standards. There are a number of reasons that positively and negatively affect the number of eggs laid in poultry nests. The following events reduce egg-laying:
The following factors stimulate egg production:
If you create acceptable living conditions, the productivity of chickens will approach the standard.
Table Egg production of hens of laying hens of the best breeds
Productivity (eggs per year)