Eryngium is a herbaceous plant belonging to the Umbrella family. All over the world, you can find various types of both annuals and perennials. The flower stem is usually erect, reaching a height of 35 cm to 1.5 m. The leaves are elongated, with a leathery surface, carved at the edges. Flowers form in umbellate inflorescences, bloom from June to September.
Enegolovnik is perfect for decorating a garden plot, it will find a certain place in the design of bouquets. In addition, the plant has melliferous properties, and is also used in folk medicine.
Erythematosus can be easily propagated by seed. Seeds are planted directly into open ground. The most favorable time is spring.
The erythematosus can also reproduce by self-sowing - the seeds can independently fall into the ground, and in the spring sprouts will appear from them. To provide the necessary conditions for full development, they should be thinned out. The erythematosus does not require special care. But weeding and watering is simply necessary. The culture grows very quickly, the roots penetrate deeply into the soil.
Some gardeners pre-germinate seedlings from seed. This procedure is usually started at the end of winter. Then, by May, young plants will be ready for transplanting into open soil.
This method is usually performed in the spring when the frost is behind. Since the culture has a fragile root system, the bush should be divided very carefully, carefully and carefully bypassing the most vulnerable places.
For erythematosus, it is better to choose a sunny area. With this choice, the flowers of the plant will have a rich shade, which will increase the attractiveness and beauty of the Eringium.
The soil should be light and well-drained. In this case, you should opt for sandy or rocky soil.
Eringium is an unpretentious plant, so it is quite easy to care for the plant.
Erythematosus can practically do without watering even during dry periods, and excess moisture can completely destroy the plant.
The culture does not require feeding. Gardeners have repeatedly noticed that the enhanced nutrient medium worsens the splendor of the plant and reduces frost resistance.
It is advisable to carry out mulching with peat. This makes it easier to control weeds, which must be removed.
The splendor of culture is influenced by the rejuvenation of the erythematosus. For this, plant pruning is used.But after the end of flowering, the sprouts are cut down to the base, leaving only a small stump.
Tall plants should be reinforced with props so that the stems do not fall on the ground.
Erythematosus tolerates winter well and does not need shelter. However, if the selected seeds do not have the necessary winter hardiness, the sprouts should be covered in cold weather using spruce branches or dry foliage.
The plant is extremely resistant to pests and diseases. Even infected neighboring plants are not afraid of eringium.
This exotic plant can often be seen in garden plots. Gardeners welcome the planting of a bluehead. And even lovingly they call it a graceful thorn. Culture not only improves the appearance of the territory itself, but also fits perfectly into landscape design, looks great in the design of hedges, alpine slides, rockeries. Delicate blue flowers adorn group plantings, look great among large stones and rocks.
The beautiful combination of Eringium with lily, dahlia, phlox and geranium pleases the eye with elegance and grace. The plant looks exquisite against a background of pink, red, white flowers. Collage with bells, poppies, cereals surprises with its organicity.
Inflorescences have the ability to preserve their external qualities for many years, therefore, more and more often you can find bright erythematosus in solemn bouquets, flower arrangements. Combinations with lilies, tulips of different tones are appropriate here. A graceful thorn in the contrast of shades looks picturesque and bright.
There are about 250 types of eringium. The most popular of these are the following crops:
Since the root of the culture is rich in tannins, acids, essential oils, traditional medicine could not ignore the beneficial properties of the plant. Decoctions and infusions prepared from roots and herbs give a good expectorant effect, are used as a diuretic, stimulate the intestines, improve liver and stomach functions.However, a group of diseases prohibits their intake. They should not be used by hypertensive patients, pregnant women, patients with diabetes.
The roots of the plant are harvested in the autumn or early spring. They are freed from the ground, cut into pieces and dried in well-ventilated pantries or under a canopy. Ready-made roots can be stored for up to three years.
The grass is harvested during flowering. It is crushed and air-dried, always in the shade. The prepared herb can be used for 2 years.
ERINGIUM! How to sow seeds correctly in the spring.
Gardeners pay considerable attention to the aesthetics of their site. And ever-flowering fragrant compositions can instantly transform the territory, giving it a variety of colors and shapes. A flowerbed of continuous flowering with your own hands will require more strength than single plantings of the same species. It is created according to quite clear rules, which are undesirable to deviate from, since harmony is lost, and the composition can become an object for irritation of the hostess, and not for aesthetic pleasure.
Plants that come across on the way on hikes can be used for food. Some of them even have medicinal properties. In their structure, they have collected all the resources necessary for a person. From them you can get minerals, carbohydrates, acids necessary for a person and even vitamins. You can eat these plants completely. The stem, shoots, leaves and other components are used as food.
Travelers often pluck roots from the ground. The latter are very rich in nutritional value. You can eat them almost immediately after you pick them.
Exploiting the stems as food helps travelers recuperate and provide themselves with further energy. The digestive and nervous systems draw from them resources for further stable functioning. Let's take a look at each such sprout.
It has a powerful stem, which reaches a height of 1.5 meters. The structure has a hairline on itself, each particle is burning. This plant has a high nutritional value.
The people consider nettle to be meat of vegetable origin. The sprouts are high in C vitamins. You will also find carotene and some organic acids in it.
To find nettles, head to the shore of the reservoir. She settled down near the bushes that are there. Nettle leaves are exploited by women all over Russia. They are added to food and cabbage soup is prepared. It is also used to create salads. You must first treat it with boiling water.
The stems are cut and the resulting mass is exploited to create a kind of replacement for tea. Nettle has very strong medicinal properties. It helps to stop the bleeding.
This plant has been known to everyone since childhood. Its height reaches fifty centimeters. You can find a dandelion in soil that does not have an abundant layer of tar.
A traveler can extract sugar, protein, calcium and many other resources useful for the body from it. The entire inner part of the dandelion contains in its structure a special juice that has a bitter taste. The leaves are used by housewives to make salad.
It's pretty easy to say goodbye to an unpleasant taste. Throw the leaves into water that has salty properties. There is also an alternative way - they need to be welded. The peeled stem can be eaten as food. The roots are used to add to flour. They are pre-cleaned.
From this flour, you can create cakes or even pies. Everyone who has tried this dish will restore the missing resources of the body.
If you grind the root, then it will be quite suitable for drinking as a tea. Take the rhizome and begin to dry it until it stops secreting juice. It remains only to dry it and grind it. The perfect composition for tea is guaranteed.
The stem of this plant resembles a kind of arrow with unusual tips that are spread out in different directions. The look of horsetail is really strange, but it's hard to argue about its beneficial properties for the human body. Soups and salads are created from the shoots. They can also be eaten dry. Nuts located on the ground are also accepted as food. They are rich in starch and have an unusual sweet taste. You can eat them in any condition. They are great both raw and cooked. The taste remains unchanged.
Horsetail herb is used as a material for treating patients. It can stop blood and disinfect any wound. Used to treat decaying wounds. Cuts and any other puncture wounds are also treated this way. Horsetail infusions help heal the throat for various diseases. You just need to rinse your mouth. Only horsetail possesses healing properties. The rest of the horsetails cannot be exploited in this way. In their composition, they have a high content of alkaloids.
The trunks of these plants are red in color. Burdock has special nutritional properties in spring. Its leaves are used in soups and broths.
He has a root vegetable, the height of which is really enormous. It contains alternatives to parsley, carrots and even parsnips. Its roots are eaten both dry and boiled or baked. Housewives also add it to their soup as an alternative to potatoes. Cases of making cutlets from burdock have been recorded. In field conditions, this resource will help travelers escape from painful conditions in the joints. It is also used for bruises. The peeled stems are simply put in the place that hurts.
Appears in spring. The plant has a rather unusual shape. It looks like a bunch of golden keys. Some countries use it to create salads. The nutritional value of the product is very high. It contains huge reserves of ascorbic acid. One leaf is enough to restore the lack of vitamin C in the body. The healing properties are marked by the fact that primrose decoctions have a calming effect on a person.
It has a high content of oxalic acid and vitamin C. It is used by housewives when making soup and cabbage soup. The plant contains sour juice. A special drink is created from it, which quenches thirst with ease. This product can be eaten both dry and processed. Acid can be used to treat abscesses, abscesses and boils. It is necessary to grind the leaves and attach them to the problem area. In addition to healing the wound, you also protect yourself from bacteria.
Orchis tuber is of particular nutritional value. It contains starch, sugar and protein. Kissel from this plant will help you restore energy and also save you from fatigue. Just forty grams of this plant contains as many nutrients as you should consume per day.
|A person who finds himself in a forest and does not know anything at all about the plants growing in it and living animals and insects, berries and mushrooms, often in a place crowded with food, may well find himself in a situation of severe starvation, or even poisoned by poisonous plants. To prevent this from happening, you need to have an idea of the elementary edible plants that grow in the forest and in the fields.|
On wet edges, lowland and watershed meadows, grassy swamps, swampy shores of water bodies, the snake mountaineer (Polygonum bistorta) grows - a perennial herb with a high, up to a meter, stem of large basal leaves as long as a palm, but much narrower and sharper. The upper leaves are small, linear, wavy-notched, grayish below. The flowers are pink, collected in a spikelet. The snake mountaineer is edible. Young shoots and leaves are mainly used for food, which, after removing the middle veins, can be boiled or eaten fresh or dried.The aerial part of the plant contains a fair amount of vitamin C. The rhizome of the plant is thick, sinuous, resembling a crayfish neck, and is also edible. It contains a lot of starch, carotene, vitamin C, organic acids. However, due to the large amount of tannins, the rhizomes must be soaked. Then they are dried, pounded and added to flour when baking bread and tortillas. Knotweed root is used as a powerful astringent for acute intestinal disorders. Outwardly, decoctions and tinctures are used to treat old wounds, boils and ulcers.
Another edible herb - runny (Aegopodium podagraria) - is often found in moist shaded forest, along ravines and ravines, damp stream banks. This is one of the very first spring grasses that appears in the forest at the same time as the shoots of nettles. Runny from the umbrella family - the inflorescences are fixed on thin knitting needles, which diverge in rays in radial directions. At the top of the plant is the largest fist-sized umbrella. In those places where there is little light, the runny forms thickets, entirely consisting of leaves without flowering stems. In clearings rich in sun, the plant acquires a rather tall stem with a white umbrella. Even in the heat, the leaves of the plant are covered with droplets of water - this is perspiration that seeped through the water cracks in the green plates. Cabbage cabbage soup cooked from dream is not inferior to cabbage. Young, unfolded leaves and petioles are harvested. Go to food and stems, from which the skin is pre-cut. Petioles and stems put in a salad will give it a spicy taste. Wild greens of dream as a very nutritious and vitamin product were widely used by Moscow canteens in the spring of 1942 and 1943. Dozens of people went to the forests near Moscow to harvest this grass. In those difficult years, she also helped her sleep in winter - she was chopped and salted in advance, like cabbage. Dream soup is prepared as follows: chopped and fried petioles of dream leaves, onions, finely chopped meat are placed in a pot, poured with meat broth and put on fire. Chopped leaves of dream is added to the barely boiled broth and boiled for another thirty minutes, and fifteen minutes before the end of cooking, add salt, pepper, bay leaf.
One of the few forest plants in which leaves, stems, and rhizomes are suitable for food is hogweed. Among our herbs, there is hardly another such giant. Powerful ribbed, covered with bristles, the trunk of this plant sometimes reaches two meters in height. The trifoliate leaves of the hogweed are also unusually large, coarse, woolly, dissected into large lobes. No wonder the popular name for hogweed is "bear paw". This is a common inhabitant of forest edges, forest meadows, wastelands, roadsides. Its peeled stems have a sweet, pleasant taste, somewhat reminiscent of that of a cucumber. They can be eaten raw, boiled, or fried in oil. In spring, the hogweed is tender, and its young leaves with a taste of carrots are also edible. All types of hogweed contain essential oils and therefore smell harsh. Hogweed greens are usually first scalded in order to reduce the pungent odor, and then put into borscht or put to stew. The hogweed broth resembles chicken broth. The sweetish rhizome of the plant, containing up to 10% sugar, is not inferior in calorie content and taste to garden vegetables and corn. Some hogweed juice contains furocoumarin, which can cause skin burns. Therefore, care must be taken when collecting this plant.
In clearings and fires, in damp and shady places, often vast areas are covered with luxurious bracken ferns (Pteridium aquilinum). Its thick brown rhizome is overgrown with filamentous roots from the top of the rhizome, large pinnately complex leathery leaves emerge. The bracken differs from other ferns in that the bags with spores are placed under the wrapped edges of the leaves. As a food product, bracken is widely used in Siberia and the Far East.Its young shoots and leaves are boiled in a large amount of salt water and washed thoroughly to remove all scales from the leaves. Bracken shoots soup tastes like mushroom soup.
Another inhabitant of the forest, migrated and cultivated in the gardens, is rhubarb (Rheum). In rhubarb, from the underground shoot (rhizomes), long-petiolate leaves with more or less wavy plates are collected in a rosette. It grows on forest edges, along streams and rivers, on the slopes of hills. Meaty leafy cuttings are used for food, which, having peeled off the skin, can be eaten raw, boiled or prepared from them compote, fruit drink. In England, rhubarb soup is made.
On the banks of rivers, marshes and lakes in the water you can find dense thickets of cattail (Typha angustifolia). Its black-brown inflorescences, resembling a ramrod on long, almost leafless stems, cannot be confused with anything. The food is usually fleshy rhizomes containing starch, proteins and sugar. They can be cooked or baked. Pancakes, flat cakes, porridge are baked from dried and ground cattail roots. To prepare flour, the rhizomes are cut into small slices, dried in the sun until they break with a dry crack, after which they can be ground. Rich in starch and sugar, young spring shoots are eaten raw, boiled, or fried. When cooked, cattail shoots taste very much like asparagus. The yellow-brown pollen of flowers, mixed with water to a mushy state, can be used to bake small loaves.
One of the most beautiful plants in the forest is the white water lily (Nymphaea candida). It grows in quiet waters, on stagnant and slowly flowing waters. The leaves of the water lily are large, their upper side is green, the lower one is purple. Its highly developed rhizome is eaten boiled or baked. The roots are also good for making flour. In this case, they are cleaned, divided into narrow strips, cut into centimeter-long pieces and dried in the sun, and then pounded on stones. To remove tannins from the resulting flour, it is poured with water for four to five hours, draining the water several times and replacing it with fresh. Then the flour is sprinkled on paper or cloth in a thin layer and dried.
Another inhabitant of water bodies is also edible - chilim, or water nut (Tgara natans). It is an aquatic plant with large greenish leaves, very similar to currant leaves. Long thin stems stretch from the leaves to the very bottom. If you raise them, then under the leaves on the stem you can see small blackish boxes with five thorns. Chillim is similar in size and flavor to chestnuts. The local population sometimes picks it up in sacks in the fall. In some countries, water walnut (Tgara bicornis) is widely cultivated. Chilim can be eaten raw, boiled in salted water, baked in ashes, like potatoes, and made into soup. Bread is baked from walnuts ground into flour. The boiled fruits of this plant are sold everywhere in China.
Calla palustris (Calla palustris) has long been called the breadbasket of the marsh. This conspicuous inhabitant of the swamps is not high and, being a relative of exotic calla lilies, has many similarities with them. “Leaves on long stalks - flush with the stem. Each plate is wide, pointed, with a contour like a heart, sparkles with lacquered green ... But first of all, this plant stands out as an ear, in which small flowers are collected. Such ears whiten with a stearin candle among thickets of marsh grasses. One and a half, or even three centimeters, the ear of a calla rises, exposing the coverlet forward, too. This leaf is fleshy, pointed, snow-white on the inside, and green on the outside, ”- such a description of calla is given by A.N. Strizhev and L.V. Garibova. All parts of the plant and especially the rhizome are poisonous. Therefore, before eating, the calla root is cut into small slices, dried, ground, and the resulting flour is boiled. Then the water is drained, and the thick is dried again. After such processing, calla root flour loses its bitterness and toxic properties and may well be used for baking bread.Calla white flour bread is fluffy and delicious.
Along the banks of rivers and lakes, in swampy meadows, there is a susak, called wild bread. The adult plant is large - up to one and a half meters in height, usually lives in water. On its straight, standing stem, umbrellas of white-pink or green flowers stick out in all directions. There are no leaves on the stem, and therefore the flowers are especially noticeable. The triangular leaves of the susak are very narrow, long, straight. They are collected in a bunch and rise from the very base of the stem. Thick, fleshy rhizomes are edible. Peeled, they are baked, fried or boiled like potatoes. The flour obtained from the dried rhizome is suitable for baking bread. Rhizomes contain not only starch, but quite a lot of protein and even some fat. So it's even better nutritionally than regular bread.
Experienced hikers know edible plants by heart, and it will not be difficult for them to distinguish useful shoots from poisonous fruits. What can not be said about those tourists who go to the forest for the first time. In order to protect yourself in the wild or simply supplement your meals with aromatic herbs fried at the stake, it is recommended to familiarize yourself with the list of plants that can be eaten without a threat to health.
It may seem strange to some, but wild plants can really be eaten and, moreover, saturate the human body with the necessary useful components. They allow the traveler, if necessary, not only to satisfy hunger, but also to restore the supply of energy.
Even small children can easily recognize the good old dandelion. This perennial herb belongs to the multicolor family. It is characterized by a green stem, up to 60 cm long, pinnate toothed leaves emerging from a basal rosette and yellow baskets. The fruit is an achene with a tuft of light gray hairs.
It grows mainly in the forest-steppe zone. You can meet him in open spaces, for example, in fields, along rivers, ditches, and in almost every yard and vegetable garden, as well as in the forest at the edges and along forest paths.
The flower has a valuable composition, which includes protein, vitamins A, C, E. All its parts contain milky juice, due to which it has a bitter taste. You can eat it raw, but not everyone will like the bitterness present. To get rid of it, it is better to cook the plant, but if this is not possible, at least pour it over with a portion of boiling water or hold it for several hours in salt water. The leaves will fit well into a salad, and the root is best eaten boiled or fried. He will act as a completely satisfying dish. And if you dry it and grind it finely, you can get a healthy herbal tea.
Nettle scares away hikers with its strong stinginess. But, despite this peculiar property, it is not forbidden to eat it.
The plant is characterized by stems up to half a meter high and lanceolate leaves with sharp teeth around the perimeter. It is completely covered with hairs, giving it that very property of burning. Most often, nettles can be found along ravines, in clearings and in forests, mainly in dark places, for example, next to bushes.
Nettle is very nutritious, it contains vitamins C, B, K, carotene and acids. If there is a need to eat raw leaves, then initially it is necessary to scald them with boiling water, and then cut into pieces or roll them up. It is best if you can cook them for 5-6 minutes. This will allow any formic acid to evaporate, giving the plant a neutral flavor. Under domestic conditions, the leaves are added to the cabbage soup, the stems are fermented, and the juice is taken as a tincture.
Many edible plants are rarely eaten, but not wild onions. It is very common in cooking and is used by some peoples as well as common green onions. If he met on the way, then you can eat him with peace of mind.
Perennial grass often grows in pastures, fields and forests.It can be distinguished by its long, bare stem, arrow-shaped leaves and a spherical basket of white-lilac flowers.
All green parts of the plant can be eaten fresh or dried. For use in its raw form, additional processing is not required, it is enough to rinse it thoroughly. Onions are dried in the open air or in an oven, after which they are chopped and used as a seasoning.
Woodlice is known to many as a weed, so I do not know everything about the edibility of this herb. This valuable plant has a branchy creeping stem, along which there are multiple oblong leaves. The flowers are white and star-shaped.
The leaves can be eaten raw or cooked. They have many useful components: vitamins A, C, E, iodine, potassium. The plant's taste is absolutely neutral, so you can eat it both independently and as part of dishes and salads.
Many summer residents come across this grass every year. It can have a green or reddish tint. Its leaves are lanceolate or spear-shaped. Depending on the species, it can reach a height of 50 to 150 cm.
You can eat it fresh, or you can boil it in a little water. It is often used for the preparation of medicinal broths, as it contains a large amount of protein, fiber and organic acids.
This plant is most often found in ditches, river armholes, forested areas and hollows. It is very easy to distinguish it: the trunk is thick and long, sometimes exceeding 1.5 m, the large leaves are heart-shaped, the inflorescences-baskets of purple color are covered with thorny needles.
Fresh leaves are often boiled in soups. But special attention is paid to the edible root of the plant. It can be eaten raw, or you can apply heat treatment, for example, bake in a fire. In structure, it is very similar to an ordinary potato.
Wild sorrel is an edible plant familiar to many. It is very similar to its small brother, the common sorrel. The difference lies in the size and structure of the leaves, which are much larger and stiffer in the horse species. The total plant height can reach two meters in height.
Due to the fact that the leaves are quite dense, they do not taste as good as that of the usual species, but they are quite edible. All parts of the plant are rich in tannins, essential oils, vitamins and trace elements. And if the root is better used for making decoctions, then the leaves and petioles can be eaten fresh, for example, as part of a vegetable salad.
It is often found in forest and forest-steppe zones, in meadows, and horse sorrel loves wet swampy areas.
Perennial plant of the umbrella family. On long, thin stems, there are a large number of oblong leaves. Depending on the location, this edible forest plant may have an umbrella of small white flowers on top. They appear in conditions of abundant sunlight. Prefers the territory of wastelands, deciduous forests, forest edges.
It is best to eat young shoots, leaves and petioles. They can be identified by their very light, almost transparent yellowish-green color. Before you start eating the plant, it must be boiled for at least 1-2 minutes. In this case, the skin must be removed from the stem. The cooked leaves are delicious with butter. It is very often added to soups.
A widespread perennial plant from the Asteraceae family. It is characterized by a long, straight stem, lanceolate leaves and small flowers of white or pink color, collected in a dense scutellum.
You can meet him almost everywhere: along paths and roads, in meadows, wastelands, in the forest zone. Shoots, leaves and flowers are eaten. Due to its bitter taste, it is usually consumed in dishes or dried as a seasoning.
This beautiful useful plant prefers to grow in clearings, forest edges and in forest ravines. You can recognize it by the large number of blue-red flowers wrapped in wide ovoid leaves with a rough surface.
You can eat raw lungwort without fear. It is very useful because it contains ascorbic acid, silver, carotene, saponins, tannins. For this purpose, only the ground part of the flower is used. Leaves and stems make a great addition to soup or fresh salad.
Wild asparagus is slightly different from store-bought asparagus, with a thinner stem, but generally recognizable. The forest plant has a bright red edible fruit. They ripen only by September, but if there is a need to eat something in natural conditions, then it's not scary, the stems, root and shoots of asparagus are also edible. You can eat them raw, but if possible, it is better to boil them for a few minutes.
Mineral salts, saponin, essential oils are all found in wild asparagus.
One of the few plants that does not have a stem. Its green leaves, which closely resemble clover, extend directly from the root. It can be found mainly in forests, especially in dark places, for example, under the trunks of fir trees.
The most important advantage of acid is a high content of vitamin C. Along with it, the plant contains organic acids and carotene. You can eat its leaves raw to seize hunger if necessary, or you can simply chew them to quench your thirst due to the secreted juice. At home, acid is added to cabbage soup, soups, salads and even brewed like tea.
Sorrel is one of the most famous edible plants. It is often grown independently in vegetable gardens, but can also be found in the wild. It is localized mainly in fields, meadows, along rivers and lakes.
The sour taste familiar to many is justified by the high content of organic acids. In the composition you can also find vitamins A, B, C and tannins. The stem of the plant is straight, and the leaves are spear-shaped.
Sorrel does not require any pre-treatment, except for washing, the leaves can be eaten immediately or added to other herbs and vegetables, making a healthy salad. And, of course, it is an indispensable component for sour cabbage soup.
Many herbaceous plants are edible. Most of them contain almost all the substances a person needs. The richest plant foods are carbohydrates, organic acids, vitamins and mineral salts. Leaves, shoots, stems of plants, as well as their rhizomes, tubers and bulbs are eaten. The underground parts of plants, as natural stores of nutrients, are very rich in starch and have the greatest nutritional value. Plants with edible leaves and shoots are widespread. Their main advantage is ease of collection, the possibility of eating raw, as well as in the form of salads, soups and additives to other products. The substances contained in herbaceous plants are able to partially restore the expended energy, support the vitality of the body, stimulate the cardiovascular, digestive and nervous systems.
One of the most common plants in the forest is stinging nettle (Urtica dioica). Its stems are straight, tetrahedral, unbranched, up to one and a half meters high. Leaves are opposite, ovate-lanceolate, with large teeth at the edges. The whole plant is covered with stinging hairs. Nettle grows (photo 16) in shady moist forests, in clearings, burnt-out areas, along ravines and coastal bushes. For their great nutritional value, nettles are sometimes called "vegetable meat". Its leaves contain a large amount of vitamin C, carotene, vitamins B and K, and various organic acids. Nettle has long been used as a food plant. Very tasty green cabbage soup is prepared from its young leaves. Scalded with boiling water, nettles go to salads. Young, not coarse stems are chopped, salted and fermented, like cabbage. Inflorescences are brewed instead of tea. Nettle also has numerous medicinal properties. It is used mainly as a good hemostatic agent.Fresh juice (one teaspoon three times a day) and infusion (10 grams of dry leaves per glass of boiling water, boil for ten minutes and drink half a glass twice a day) are used to treat internal bleeding. Outwardly, fresh leaves or powder from dried leaves are used to treat festering wounds.
Dandelion (Taraxácum officinále) is also common in forest flora - a perennial plant from 5 to 50 centimeters high with a thick vertical almost unbranched root, oblong, pinnate toothed leaves and bright yellow flower baskets collected in a basal rosette (photo 17). Dandelion settles on poorly soddy soils - in floodplains of rivers, along roadside ditches, on slopes. It is often found in forest glades and forest edges, along the sides of forest roads. Dandelion can be easily attributed to vegetable crops (in Western Europe it is grown in vegetable gardens). The plant is rich in protein, sugars, calcium, phosphorus and iron compounds. All parts of it contain a very bitter milky juice. Fresh young leaves are used for making salads. Bitterness is easily eliminated if the leaves are kept in salt water for half an hour or boiled. Peeled, washed and boiled roots make food as a second course. The boiled roots can be dried, ground, and added to tortilla flour. Ground dandelion root can replace tea. The dug out and cleaned rhizome of the plant is first dried until the milky juice ceases to stand out at the break, then dried and fried. To obtain an excellent brew, all that remains is to finely crush it.
Horsetail (Equisetum arvense) grows in river valleys, along sandy coasts, in meadows in spruce, light coniferous, birch and mixed forests. In spring, its pale spore-bearing stems appear from the ground, similar to densely spaced arrows with brown tips, and a month later they are replaced by green “fir-trees” that do not wither until autumn. This strange ancient plant (photo 18) is edible. Young spring spore-bearing shoots are used for food - they are used to prepare salad, boil soup or eat raw. You can also eat earthen nuts - nodules growing on the rhizomes of horsetail - they are rich in starch, taste sweet and are edible raw, baked or boiled. Horsetail (herringbone) herb is rich in valuable medicinal substances and has long been used in medicine. Possessing hemostatic and disinfecting properties, the infusion (20 grams of horsetail per glass of boiling water), powder or juice of fresh grass is used to treat festering and cut wounds. Horsetail infusion gargle with sore throat and gum disease. All of the above applies only to the horsetail; other types of horsetails contain alkaloids.
Among the many herbs in the forest, there is nothing more common than burdock (Arctium tomentosum). In the hollows and ditches, in the forest, on the bushy slopes to the river - everywhere you can find this green whopper, sometimes exceeding human growth. The trunk is sinewy, fleshy with a red tint. The leaves are dark green arshin length as if covered with felt on the seamy side (photo 19). In Siberia, burdock has long been considered a vegetable plant. In spring, young tasty leaves are boiled in soups and broths. But the main thing in burdock is a long, powerful root vegetable that can replace carrots, parsley, parsnips. Fleshy burdock roots can be eaten raw, as well as boiled, baked, fried, used in soups instead of potatoes, and made into cutlets. In field conditions, burdock roots are thoroughly washed, cut into slices and baked over a fire until golden brown. Fresh burdock leaves are used as compresses for joint pain and bruises.
In the spring, when the buds on trees barely begin to unfold in forest clearings and thickets, along the banks of rivers and in thickets of bushes, primrose stalks (Primula veris) appear, similar to bundles of golden keys. It is a perennial plant with a straight flower arrow and large woolly, whitish, wrinkled leaves.The bright yellow corollas of flowers with five teeth are fragrant with honey. Primrose (photo 20) in some countries is bred as salad greens. Its leaves are a storehouse of ascorbic acid. It is enough to eat one leaf of a primrose to fill the daily need for vitamin C. In early spring, fresh leaves and flower arrows of this plant are an excellent filling of a vitamin salad. Soothing and diaphoretic teas are made from primrose leaves and flowers.
One of the first spring herbs is oxalis acetosella. This unpretentious forest plant is unsightly and inconspicuous (photo 21). The sorrel has no stems. Fleshy, light green, heart-shaped leaves extend immediately from the roots. Dense thickets of this herb can often be found under the trunks of fir trees. It grows everywhere in shady and humid forests. Oxalic leaves contain oxalic acid and vitamin C. Along with sorrel, it is used for dressing cabbage soup and soups. Sour juice refreshes well, so a sour drink is prepared from crushed sour, which perfectly quenches thirst. Sour can be added to salad, brewed as tea, or eaten fresh. Applied to purulent wounds, boils and abscesses, crushed acid leaves or their juice have a wound healing and antiseptic effect.
At the end of spring, in the forest glades, among the grass stands, it is easy to find a straight stalk with a tassel of spotted flowers and oblong (like a tulip's) leaves, also covered with spots. This is an orchis. From the Latin name it is clear that this plant is an orchid. Indeed, the first thing that catches your eye is a purple flower - an exact reduced copy of a tropical orchid. In addition to its beauty, the orchis (photo 22) has long attracted people with its juicy tuber, which is rich in starch, protein, dextrin, sugar and a whole range of other nutrients and medicinal substances. Kissels and soups, cooked from orchis rhizome, perfectly restore strength, save from exhaustion. 40 grams of crushed tubers powder contains the daily requirement of nutrients that a person needs. Orchis tubers with enveloping properties are used for indigestion, dysentery and poisoning.
On wet edges, lowland and watershed meadows, herbaceous swamps, swampy shores of water bodies, the snake mountaineer (Polygonum bistorta) grows - a perennial herb with a high, up to a meter, stem of large basal leaves as long as a palm, but much narrower and sharper. The upper leaves are small, linear, wavy-notched, grayish below. The flowers are pink, collected in a spikelet. The snake mountaineer (photo 23) is edible. Young shoots and leaves are mainly used for food, which, after removing the middle veins, can be boiled or eaten fresh or dried. The aerial part of the plant contains a fair amount of vitamin C. The rhizome of the plant is thick, sinuous, resembling a crayfish neck, and is also edible. It contains a lot of starch, carotene, vitamin C, organic acids. However, due to the large amount of tannins, the rhizomes must be soaked. Then they are dried, pounded and added to flour when baking bread and tortillas. Knotweed root is used as a powerful astringent for acute intestinal disorders. Outwardly, decoctions and tinctures are used to treat old wounds, boils and ulcers.
The very first newcomer to the forest fires was the fireweed (Chamaenerion angustifolium). It lives on forest edges, in tall-grass meadows, in clearings and slopes. This is a plant with a smooth, tall, ankle stem, on which successive leaves, cut by a net of veins, sit (photo 24). Fireweed blooms all summer - from a distance its purple-red or purple flowers, collected in long brushes, are striking. The leaves and roots of fireweed contain a large amount of protein substances, carbohydrates, sugars, organic acids. Almost all parts of the plant can be used for food. So, young leaves taste no worse than salad. Leaves and unblown flower buds are brewed like tea. Fireweed roots can be eaten both raw and cooked like asparagus or cabbage.Flour from dried rhizomes is suitable for baking flat cakes, pancakes and porridge. An infusion of fireweed leaves (two tablespoons of leaves, brewed with a glass of boiling water) is used as an anti-inflammatory, analgesic and tonic.
Sorrel (Rumex acetosa) grows on forest edges, along roadsides and wastelands. This plant (photo 25), long ago introduced into cultivation and moved to vegetable gardens, is known to everyone - everyone has tried its sour spear-shaped leaves on long cuttings. The stem of the plant is straight, furrowed, sometimes up to a meter in height. Leaves grow from a lush root rosette. Just three weeks after the ground thaws, the sorrel leaves are ready to harvest. In addition to oxalic acid, the leaves contain a lot of protein, iron, ascorbic acid. Sorrel is used to make soup, sour cabbage soup, salads, or eaten raw. Decoction of seeds and roots helps with indigestion and dysentery.
Another edible herb - runny (Aegopodium podagraria) - is often found in moist shaded forest, along ravines and ravines, damp stream banks. This is one of the very first spring grasses that appears in the forest at the same time as the shoots of nettles. Runny (photo 26) from the umbrella family - the inflorescences are fixed on thin knitting needles, which radiate in radial directions. At the top of the plant is the largest fist-sized umbrella. In those places where there is little light, the runny forms thickets, entirely consisting of leaves without flowering stems. In clearings rich in sun, the plant acquires a rather tall stem with a white umbrella. Even in the heat, the leaves of the plant are covered with droplets of water - this is perspiration that seeped through the water cracks in the green plates. Cabbage cabbage soup cooked from dream is not inferior to cabbage. Young, unfolded leaves and petioles are harvested. Go to food and stems, from which the skin is pre-cut. Petioles and stems put in a salad will give it a spicy taste. Wild greens of dream as a very nutritious and vitamin product were widely used by Moscow canteens in the spring of 1942 and 1943. Dozens of people went to the forests near Moscow to harvest this grass. In those difficult years, she also helped her sleep in winter - she was chopped and salted in advance, like cabbage. Dream soup is prepared as follows: chopped and fried petioles of dream leaves, onions, finely chopped meat are placed in a pot, poured with meat broth and put on fire. Chopped leaves of dream is added to the barely boiled broth and boiled for another thirty minutes, and fifteen minutes before the end of cooking, add salt, pepper, bay leaf.
One of the few forest plants in which leaves, stems, and rhizomes are suitable for food is hogweed. Among our herbs, there is hardly another such giant. Powerful ribbed, covered with bristles, the trunk of this plant sometimes reaches two meters in height. The trifoliate leaves of the hogweed are also unusually large, coarse, woolly, dissected into large lobes. No wonder the popular name for hogweed is "bear paw". This is a common inhabitant of forest edges, forest meadows, wastelands, roadsides. Its peeled stems have a sweet, pleasant taste, somewhat reminiscent of that of a cucumber. They can be eaten raw, boiled, or fried in oil. In spring, the hogweed (photo 27) is tender, and its young leaves with a taste of carrots are also edible. All types of hogweed contain essential oils and therefore smell harsh. Hogweed greens are usually first scalded in order to reduce the pungent odor, and then put into borscht or put to stew. The hogweed broth resembles chicken broth. The sweetish rhizome of the plant, containing up to 10% sugar, is not inferior in calorie content and taste to garden vegetables and corn. Some hogweed juice contains furocoumarin, which can cause skin burns. Therefore, care must be taken when collecting this plant.
In clearings and fires, in damp and shady places, often vast areas are covered with luxurious bracken ferns (Pteridium aquilinum).Its thick brown rhizome is overgrown with filamentous roots from the top of the rhizome, large pinnate-complex leathery leaves emerge (photo 28). The bracken differs from other ferns in that the bags with spores are placed under the wrapped edges of the leaves. As a food product, bracken is widely used in Siberia and the Far East. Its young shoots and leaves are boiled in a large amount of salt water and washed thoroughly to remove all scales from the leaves. Bracken shoots soup tastes like mushroom soup.
Another inhabitant of the forest, migrated and cultivated in the gardens, is rhubarb (Rheum). In rhubarb, from the underground shoot (rhizomes), long-petiolate leaves with more or less wavy plates are collected in a rosette. It grows on forest edges, along streams and rivers, on the slopes of hills (photo 29). Meaty leafy cuttings are used for food, which, having peeled off the skin, can be eaten raw, boiled or prepared from them compote, fruit drink. In England, rhubarb soup is made.
On the banks of rivers, marshes and lakes in the water you can find dense thickets of cattail (Typha angustifolia). Its black-brown inflorescences, resembling a ramrod on long, almost leafless stems, cannot be confused with anything (photo 30). The food is usually fleshy rhizomes containing starch, proteins and sugar. They can be cooked or baked. Pancakes, flat cakes, porridge are baked from dried and ground cattail roots. To prepare flour, the rhizomes are cut into small slices, dried in the sun until they break with a dry crack, after which they can be ground. Rich in starch and sugar, young spring shoots are eaten raw, boiled, or fried. When cooked, cattail shoots taste very much like asparagus. The yellow-brown pollen of flowers, mixed with water to a mushy state, can be used to bake small loaves.
One of the most beautiful plants in the forest is the white water lily (Nymphaea candida). It grows in quiet waters, on stagnant and slowly flowing waters. The leaves of the water lily are large, their upper side is green, the lower one is purple (photo 31). Its highly developed rhizome is eaten boiled or baked. The roots are also good for making flour. In this case, they are cleaned, divided into narrow strips, cut into centimeter-long pieces and dried in the sun, and then pounded on stones. To remove tannins from the resulting flour, it is poured with water for four to five hours, draining the water several times and replacing it with fresh. Then the flour is sprinkled on paper or cloth in a thin layer and dried.
Another inhabitant of water bodies is also edible - chilim, or water nut (Tgara natans). It is an aquatic plant with large greenish leaves, very similar to currant leaves. Long thin stems stretch from the leaves to the very bottom (photo 32). If you raise them, then under the leaves on the stem you can see small blackish boxes with five thorns. Chillim is similar in size and flavor to chestnuts. The local population sometimes picks it up in sacks in the fall. In some countries, water walnut (Tgara bicornis) is widely cultivated. Chilim can be eaten raw, boiled in salted water, baked in ashes, like potatoes, and made into soup. Bread is baked from walnuts ground into flour. The boiled fruits of this plant are sold everywhere in China.
Calla palustris (Calla palustris) has long been called the breadbasket of the marsh. This conspicuous inhabitant of the swamps is not high and, being a relative of exotic calla lilies, has many similarities with them. “Leaves on long stalks - flush with the stem. Each plate is wide, pointed, with a contour like a heart, sparkles with lacquered green ... But first of all, this plant stands out as an ear, in which small flowers are collected. Such ears whiten with a stearin candle among thickets of marsh grasses. One and a half, or even three centimeters, the ear of a calla rises, exposing the coverlet forward, too. This leaf is fleshy, pointed, snow-white on the inside, and green on the outside, ”- such a description of calla (photo 33) is given by A.N. Strizhev and L.V. Garibova.All parts of the plant and especially the rhizome are poisonous. Therefore, before eating, the calla root is cut into small slices, dried, ground, and the resulting flour is boiled. Then the water is drained, and the thick is dried again. After such processing, calla root flour loses its bitterness and toxic properties and may well be used for baking bread. Calla white flour bread is fluffy and delicious.
Along the banks of rivers and lakes, in swampy meadows, there is a susak, called wild bread. An adult plant is large - up to one and a half meters in height, usually lives in water (photo 34). On its straight, standing stem, umbrellas of white-pink or green flowers stick out in all directions. There are no leaves on the stem, and therefore the flowers are especially noticeable. The triangular leaves of the susak are very narrow, long, straight. They are collected in a bunch and rise from the very base of the stem. Thick, fleshy rhizomes are edible. Peeled, they are baked, fried or boiled like potatoes. The flour obtained from the dried rhizome is suitable for baking bread. Rhizomes contain not only starch, but quite a lot of protein and even some fat. So it's even better nutritionally than regular bread.
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Edible weeds, forest herbs and wild medicinal herbs for food
Yes, and just useful info. I myself really love salads from wild herbs in the spring. Very useful and tasty. And nettle cabbage soup is not so easy to pull by the ears.
Forest herbs have always saved people from diseases and fed people, since many of them are medicinal and edible plants. Among the people useful wild herbsthat can be eaten are called - edible weeds.
During the Great Patriotic War and the post-war famine years in the villages, many families ate the same grass. The old people remember that there was no bread, they made cakes from clover and potatoes. Clover (dried flowers) was ground into powder. If there were potatoes or turnips, it was easier to survive. It was more difficult in those families where there was nothing but grass. The mortality rate was high. Turnip or rutabaga, the seeds are small, the roots can be grown in fairly large sizes. One drawback is poor storage, so the harvest was removed, only with the threat of severe frosts. Turnips were steamed in a Russian oven. Root crops were put into the hotly heated stove, the damper was coated with clay on top, so that cold air would not enter. Two days later they opened it and took out a turnip. The turnips steamed in this way were stored in barrels in winter and taken out as needed.
Now about the turnip dessert. Pieces of steamed turnips and small steamed carrots were dried in a Russian oven, resulting in dried pieces that the kids happily ate for a place of sweets.
To dream was the favorite herb of Seraphim of Sarov. And herself the grass runny has a special mark - if you look at a young plant, then it is always three branches and each has three leaves. For beginners, this is a distinguishing mark when collecting, there are similar herbs, but none has a double trinity.
Dried leaves of dream is an excellent mild laxative. In folk medicine, infusion the herbs run away drink for various lesions of the joints, gastrointestinal diseases, accompanied by a disorder of the digestive tract, kidney and bladder diseases (3 teaspoons of herbs are poured with 2 cups of boiling water, insisted for 2 hours and taken half a glass 4 times a day before meals).
I have a special place to runny in the laxative collection for children. Now constipation is common, even in the smallest, after the use of antibiotics. Together with the color of thorns and rhubarb, the herb runny perfectly copes with this ailment.
The herb is very useful, which can be collected and used by everyone who is interested in medicinal herbs. Information about this plant is found in the oldest reference books and records of monasteries .. Young leaves and stems of pleasant taste, good in soups, cabbage soup and salads. Leaves are fermented for future use like cabbage.
In the old days, in the years of famine, when by the spring almost all food supplies were eaten up in many houses, the grass was of great importance for the rural population as a serious food product. There was even the expression "I would live to dream." Dream salad: rinse young leaves, scald with boiling water, chop, add grated horseradish, salt and sour cream to taste. Horseradish can be replaced with garlic, and sour cream with mayonnaise.
Many reference books write: the leaves are harvested during flowering. In my opinion, it is much more useful to collect young plants that do not yet have flowers. To dream can be attributed to early spring plants, even though it blooms in summer, because its seedlings appear already in April. And even in July, when the snow turns into two-meter plants with white baskets of color in the meadows and forest edges, it is worth delving into the forest about 50 meters and you will find beautiful young plants. Growing in the forest the grass runny never blooms.
In early spring, I use herb for salads and green borscht (along with nettles and rhubarb).
Grass run away included in my top ten, along with herbs such as St. John's wort and horsetail.
It is not recommended to store and cook herbs in copper or iron dishes, as these metals are detrimental to beneficial enzymes.
Prepare delicious cabbage soup in the spring and nettle soup.
Finding food is a primordial form of travel. Even if the search area is only a couple of blocks of urban or suburban parkland, such an activity may appear as something primitive, something pre-lingual, which is hidden in the time immemorial of early humanity.
I first started studying edible plants when I was seven or eight years old. Over thirty years of my research, I came to an amazing conclusion:
* no matter how harsh the conditions may seem, you can always find something to chew on, what you can get hold of, if you know what and where to look.
* Searching for wild food can give you the ability to see, feel, hear, and understand terrain details - such as directions and inclines - that you might not have noticed before.
My main criterion for the selection of the following wild plants was their availability and growth right in urban and suburban areas. When collecting food, do not forget to correctly identify the plants, for which use special guides and reference books, and do not eat more than you need. Basically, if you are not lost, then when looking for edible wild plants, just enjoy the walk.
Plantain is a good example of how "weeds" can often be full of edible parts that you never knew existed. Growing in the most unsightly areas, such as overgrown lawns, roadsides, and sometimes growing right out of cracked sidewalks, plantain can be easily identified by its recognizable stems. The outer leaves of the plantain are tough and must be cooked so that they are not too bitter, and the inner shoots are tender and can be eaten directly raw.
Perhaps the most readily available of all edible plants, the needles of pine and most conifers can provide vitamin C, which can be chewed or brewed into tea. Young growth (usually lighter green) is more tender and less bitter.
Pine. Subcortical layer. Cambium. Collection time - during sap flow, beginning or mid-May, depending on the weather, you should not watch out. A longitudinal incision is made on the pine, then the bark is removed. Next, a string is taken, the ends of which are wound on sticks for convenience. Using a string, cut off the subcrustal layer from pine with a thickness of about 1 mm. It is not necessary to pull the string strongly, so as not to catch the resin, pull it down and put the cut strip in some container, for example, a glass jar. The removed tape is very juicy, after a while a sweetish juice will stand out, which can be drunk, soft tapes can be eaten immediately or dried for the winter by hanging on a string. Store in a canvas bag.In winter, the dry ribbons were ground using a home-made flour and added to the flour for the flat cakes. The cakes had a sweet pine aroma.
You can also remove it with a knife, but then the strips will be narrow. For the place of the string, you can use a thin, strong wire.
The children were engaged in the collection. Parents left early to work on the collective farm, it was good if the mother had time to cook some kind of porridge. After breakfast in the morning, the children ate in the afternoon, wherever they could find. Different roots, plant stems, seeds…. Depending on the season.
Master once told me that if you find yourself in a survival situation and find reeds, you will never go hungry. It has a few edible parts that I have never tasted but have heard they are delicious - like pollen, which can be used as a flour substitute. And I tried cattail root, which can be cooked like potatoes. And it's really delicious.
Acorns are edible and highly nutritious, but they need to be pretreated (leached) before cooking to remove the tannic acid that makes the acorns bitter. For leaching, you need to cook them for 15 minutes, thus softening the shell. After cooling, cut them in half and remove the pulp. Collect this pulp in a saucepan, cover with water, salt, and cook again for 10 minutes. Drain and cook again, repeating the process 1-2 times. As a result, you will be left with the sweet acorn pulp. Salt to taste.
Sumac is a bushy tree with spirally arranged pinnate leaves. Remember that there is poisonous sumac, which is best to stay away from, but it is easy to distinguish it by its white fruits instead of the red ones in regular sumac. We prepared delicious lemonade from sumach fruits: boil water, add fruits, let it brew and cool, then strain through cheesecloth. Then add sugar and ice.
Junipers are small conifers and shrubs. There are dozens of species found all over the world in their native habitat, and it is also used as an ornamental plant. Juniper needles range from soft to hard and prickly. When ripe, the berries turn from green to green-gray, eventually ripening to a deep blue color. More of a spice than a real food, juniper berries can be chewed on by spitting out the seeds. Their medicinal properties are still being studied by science as a cure for diabetes.
There are dozens of species of the genus Mentha native to all over the world. The definition of mint is a good introduction to the study of plant structure, as all types of mint have a well-defined square stem shape (as opposed to a regular round stem). Take leaves and fresh stems, brew, and you have a wonderful aromatic tea.
Wild onions are easy to spot by their smell and hollow, rounded stems (just like a regular onion). Look for it in fields and grassy lawns.
Hare cabbage is sometimes confused with sorrel. Both plants have three leaves, but the leaves of hare cabbage are heart-shaped, not round. Bunny cabbage leaves are edible, have a pleasant tart taste, and are rich in vitamin C. Eat in moderation.
Dandelions can be found everywhere. Flowers and leaves are edible. It is added directly to salads.
Ivan Chai is a beautiful, high-stemmed purple flower whose seed pods are palatable, especially the young ones that have not yet opened (found at the top of the flower pictured here) and have a subtle honey scent. Young shoots are also edible.
I found fennel or wild dill wherever I was. Take a pinch of sprouts and sniff if it instantly smells like licorice - it's fennel. The shoots can be chewed raw, and the seeds can be harvested and used as a spice.
Clover also grows almost everywhere. All parts of the plant - flowers, stems, seeds and leaves - are edible. As with most green plants, young shoots are the most delicate and palatable.
There is a book by Sviridonov "Forest Garden" about edible forest plants (several hundred plants) and "600 edible plants of Siberia" (it seems so). - there is overvalued information.
And here - http://www.trava-myrava.ru/dikorastyshie/pishevietravi.html not only plants are described, but also recipes for delicious and healthy dishes that you can easily cook for yourself and your family are described in detail.
Let's go further))
The post did not fit, but at this link you will read a lot of useful information about plants that sometimes grow under your nose, but you don't know how useful they can be))— http://vyzhivanie.ucoz.ru/publ/ehnciklopedija_rastenij/ehnciklopedija_rastenij/sedobnye_travy/33-1-0-391
I hope you will find a lot of interesting and useful things for your life and health). Good luck to everyone and health. And take care of yourself and your loved ones.
It is a mistake to believe that useful medicinal plants are found exclusively in the wild. Of course, they are mainly harvested in forests and meadows. But with the same success, it is possible to grow medicinal herbs on personal plots - of course, when creating conditions close to natural.
Below you can find photos and descriptions of medicinal plants, as well as find out what medicinal herbs are, and how they can be grown in your garden.
St. John's wort (HYPERICUM). The family of St. John's wort.
Speaking about what medicinal herbs are, St. John's wort comes to mind one of the first. It is a rhizome herb, but more often a subshrub and shrub. Another name for this medicinal herb is Ivanovskaya Grass. It is due to the fact that St. John's wort begins to bloom on Midsummer's Day.
The leaves of this herbaceous medicinal plant are whole, tough, in some species, wintering flowers are single or in a corymbose inflorescence, golden. Florists often use herbs or shrubs.
St. John's wort large (H. ascyron) - forest medicinal herb of Siberia and the Far East, up to 100 cm high, lanceolate leaves up to 10 cm long.
St. John's wort (H. calycinum) - plant 25 cm high, from the Eastern Mediterranean, oval leaves, large.
John Gebler's wort (H. gebleri) - medicinal plant of wet meadows of the Far East, bright orange flowers, resistant.
St. John's wort (H. olympicum) - dry forests of Southern Europe, height 50 cm, not stable in central Russia, narrow-lanceolate leaves, gray-gray, height 25 cm.
St. John's wort (H. perforatum).
Growing conditions. The genus is very diverse in terms of the ecological needs of species, it also includes typical plants of Central Russian meadows - z. perforated, and drought-resistant, thermophilic shrubs of southern Europe (h. calyx, h. Olympic).
They are grown in sunny, wind-protected areas with well-drained alkaline soils. Drought tolerant.
Reproduction. By dividing the bush (in spring and late summer) and cuttings. Planting density - 9 pcs. per 1 m2.
Melissa (MELISSA). The family of lamellar (labiate).
Melissa officinalis (M. officinalis) - a perennial of southern Europe, forms a dense bush 40-60 cm high from branched dense stems covered with ovoid leaves, serrated at the edges. The whole plant is softly pubescent. The flowers are small, white, whorled. And if the description of this medicinal plant is unremarkable, then the aroma deserves the highest praise. The plant exudes a very pleasant lemon scent, which is why it is sometimes called lemon mint. Aurea has yellow-spotted leaves.
Growing conditions. Sunny and semi-shaded areas with rich, loose soils.
Reproduction. Seeds (sowing in spring) or dividing the bush (in spring and late summer). Planting density - 9 pcs. per 1 m2.
Mint (MENTHA). The family of lamellar (labiate).
Peppermint (M. piperita) - a perennial from the countries of Southern Europe with a branched hairy stem 60-80 cm high. Leaves are ovoid, dark green shoot ends in a spike-shaped inflorescence with whorls of purple flowers. It grows rapidly due to aboveground stolons.
Growing conditions. Light and semi-shaded places with loose fertile soils.
Reproduction. Sections of rooted stolons. Planting density - 12 pcs. per 1 m2.
Lovage officinalis (L. officinaie) - decorative deciduous perennial with a thick rhizome. The leaves are shiny, slightly bluish, pinnately dissected, large in the basal rosette and on the stem. The stem is branched, up to 150 cm high, bears a large umbrella of yellowish flowers. The whole plant has a specific pleasant aroma, therefore it is also used as a flavoring agent.
Growing conditions. Sunny and semi-shaded places with clay, rich, moist soils.
Reproduction. Seeds (sowing before winter), dividing the bush (in spring and late summer). Planting density -3 pcs. per 1 m2.
Mylnyanka (SAPONARIA). The carnation family.
Perennials with creeping rhizomes grow mainly in the Mediterranean. The flowers are fragrant, collected in a scutellum.
Soapy medicinal (S. officinalis) - height 100 cm.
Basilicola soapwort (S. ocymoides) - height 10 cm.
Growing conditions. Sunny areas with well-drained light, lime-rich soil. Planting density - 16 pcs. per 1 m2.
Reproduction. Seeds (sowing in spring), summer cuttings.
Below you can find a description of the medicinal herbs comfrey, yarrow, echinacea and valerian.
Comfrey (SYMPHYTUM). Borage family.
Perennials with a thick rhizome, 30-100 cm high, from light forests of Europe, the Caucasus. The stems are winged, thick, straight. Leaves on petioles, lanceolate. Plants are covered with hard hairs. Flowers in drooping inflorescences - curl.
Caucasian comfrey (S. caucasicum) - 80-100 cm high, forms a thicket, blue flowers.
Comfrey officinalis (S. officinale) - 50-60 cm high, forms bushes.
Comfrey large-flowered (S. grandiflorum) - low (30-40 cm) compact bushes.
Growing conditions. Shady and semi-shady places with moist peaty soils.
Reproduction. Seeds (sowing in spring), dividing the bush (in spring and late summer). Planting density - 12 pcs. per 1 m2.
Yarrow (ACHILLEA). Aster family (Compositae).
The genus includes about 100 species found in the meadows of the temperate zone. It attracts attention with its undemanding culture, its ability to grow quickly and beautiful gray-green, usually feathery leaves. Small baskets are collected in a corymbose inflorescence (10-20 cm in diameter).
Yarrow (A. millefolium) - with a long branching rhizome, therefore, forms a thicket with a height of 70-80 cm.
Yarrow ptarmica, sneeze herb (A. ptarmica), has a variety with white double flowers - pearl mussel, height - 60 cm.
Have Perry's White and The Pearl - white balls of baskets are collected in a loose brush.
Yarrow meadowsweet (A. filipendulina) - dense bush, 60-100 cm high, leaves are dark green, feathery flowers are bright yellow in dense large scutes (diameter up to 9 cm).
Felted yarrow (A. tomentosa) - 15-20 cm high, the leaves are finely dissected, grayish, pressed to the ground, a shield of yellow flowers 6-8 cm in diameter.
Growing conditions. Sunny places with any garden soil, grows well on sands.
Reproduction... Seeds (sowing before winter or spring), dividing the bush (spring and autumn). Planting density -5-9 pcs. per 1 m2.
Echinacea (ECHINACEA). Aster family (Compositae).
Perennial tall (up to 150 cm) grasses with taproot and dense leafy stems, at the top in July-August with a large pinkish basket. Leaves are oval, pubescent, sharp-toothed along the edge. Three species are native to the meadows and prairies of southeastern North America.
More often than others are grown echinacea purpurea (E. purpurea) with a dark pink basket.
Echinacea angustifolia (E. angustifolia) has a smaller and lighter basket.
And at echinacea pallidum (E. pallida) - ligulate flowers are narrow, pale pink. The last two species are more dry-loving.
Growing conditions. Sunny places with rich soils.
Reproduction. Seeds (sowing in spring), seedlings bloom in the 2nd year. The division of the bush is carried out in the spring. Echinacea can grow in one place without dividing for up to 15 years. Planting density - 9 pcs. per 1 m2.
Echinacea purpurea will decorate any flower garden, mixborder, and can be grown by individual bushes on the lawn. It is often used as a medicinal plant.
Valerian (VALERIANA).The valerian family.
Perennial rhizome grasses of meadows and light forests of the temperate zone of Eurasia. They grow both as separate bushes and thickets (species with underground stolons). The flowers are small, in a beautiful openwork inflorescence-brush, the leaves are usually feathery.
Valerian mountain (V. montana) - bush 40 cm high, pink flowers in bunches.
Valerian officinalis (V. officinalis) -height up to 100 cm, white flowers, feathery leaves.
Valerian Faury (V. fauriei) - forms thickets with a height of 40 cm.
Valerian lipoliferous (V. tiliifolia) - up to 150 cm high, leaves are large, simple, heart-shaped, white flowers, in a corymbose inflorescence.
Growing conditions. Sunny and semi-shaded areas with moderately moist rich soils.
Reproduction. Seeds (sowing in spring and before winter), dividing the bush (in spring), are often weed. Planting density -5 pcs. per 1 m2.
If we talk about this medicinal plant briefly, then we can define its medicinal properties as sedatives. And in landscape design, it is used to create a dense, evergreen ground cover on trunk circles, spots on shady rockeries.
Sage (SALVIA). The family of lamellar (labiate).
A large genus (almost 700 species), which includes plants of various life forms, growing all over the world. They all contain essential oils and grow in warm habitats. The leaves are ovate, the stems are branched, the terminal inflorescence is a cluster of medium-sized helmet-shaped flowers.
Clary sage (S. glutinosa) - subshrub up to 100 cm high, from the forests of Southern Europe, pale yellow flowers.
Meadow sage (S. pratensis) - height 70-80 cm, blue flowers.
Sage rejected (S. patens) - height 70 cm, blue flowers.
Oak sage (S. nemorosa) - height 60 cm, purple flowers.
Salvia officinalis (S. officinalis) - height 50 cm.
Growing conditions. It is one of the best medicinal plants that prefers sunny areas (except clary sage) with fertile, well-drained soils.
Reproduction. Seeds (spring), dividing the bush (spring and late summer). Planting density - 9 pcs. per 1 m2.
Zubyanka (DENTARIA). Cabbage family (cruciferous).
Perennial grasses 15-20 cm high with a long, beaded rhizome and dark green leaves, large pink and crimson flowers. Typical early spring forest ephemeroids, ending the growing season in June. They are attractive because they form a bright pink blooming carpet in spring. Bear fruit. Form self-seeding.
Zubyanka Tuberous (D. bulbifera) - Caucasian plant with fawn flowers.
Zubyanka glandular (D. glandulosa) - from the Carpathians, with large crimson flowers.
Zubyanka five-leafed (D. quinquefolia) - from the forests of Europe, pink flowers.
Growing conditions. Shaded areas under the canopy of trees with forest soils, moderate moisture.
Reproduction. Seeds (sowing freshly harvested) and rhizome segments (after the end of flowering). Planting density - 25 pcs. per 1 m2.
Initial letter (BETONICA). The family of lamellar (labiate).
About 15 species growing in temperate meadows. Short-rhizome grasses, forming decorative dense bushes of ovate rosettes, crenate along the edge of the leaves.
Large-flowered initial letter - large-flowered chisel (B. macrantha = B. grandiflora = Stachys macranthus) 50-60 cm high, beautiful leaves and large dark pink flowers.
Medicinal capital letter (B. officinalis) - taller plant (80-90 cm), smaller flowers.
Growing conditions. Sunny places with fertile soils and moderate moisture.
Reproduction. By dividing the bush (spring and late summer) and seeds (sowing before winter). Seedlings bloom in the third year. Planting density -12 pcs. per 1 m2.
Burnet (SANGUISORBA). Family of Rosaceae.
Short-rhizome perennials from wet meadows of the temperate zone of Eurasia.
Burnet medicinal (S. officinaiis) - 80-100 cm high, dark red flowers.
Burnet is magnificent (S. magnifica) - height 80-90 cm, large pinkish-crimson flowers.
Burnet, small (S. minor) - height 40 cm, graceful inflorescences, red flowers, openwork plant.
Growing conditions. Sunny and semi-shaded areas with fertile moist soils.
Reproduction. Seeds (sowing in autumn), dividing the bush (in spring and late summer). Planting density - 5 pcs. per 1 m2.
Below are photos and descriptions of medicinal herbs elecampane, zopnik and cuff:
Elecampane (INULA). Aster family (Compositae).
Perennial herbaceous species (about 200), widely distributed in meadows and light forests in the temperate zone of Eurasia. Rhizomes are thick, powerful, deep root system. Basal leaves are large, heart-shaped, oval, stems are straight, slightly branched (except for the magnificent elecampane), flowers are large yellow "daisies".
Elecampane magnificent (I. magnifica = I. orientalis) - up to 150 cm high, branchy stem, basket -15 cm in diameter with sparse shields, spreading bush.
Elecampane high (I. helenium) - Stems are slightly branched, 150-200 cm high, elliptical leaves, baskets 6 cm in diameter, a cylindrical bush.
Elecampane swordsman (I. ensifolia) - 30 cm high, narrow leaves, 4 cm basket, Compacta variety - 20 cm high.
Growing conditions. Sunny places with any garden soil and medium moisture. Resistant perennials.
Reproduction. Seeds (sowing in spring), dividing the bush (in spring). Elecampane is a perennial medicinal herb that lives without transplants and divisions for 8-10 years. Planting density of large plants - 3 pcs. per 1 m2 of sword-leaved elecampane - 12 pcs.
Zopnik (PHLOMIS). The family of luciferous.
Perennial grasses (about 100 species) with a thick rhizome or taproot, rough leaves, flowers are collected in false whorls, forming a spike-shaped inflorescence.
Zopnik Russel (P. russeliana) -height 90 cm, flowers are yellowish-pinkish.
Zopnik tuberous (P. tuberosa) - 50-70 cm high, purple flowers.
Meadow zopnik (P. pratensis) - 50-70 cm high, pink flowers.
Cuff (ALCHEMILLA). Family of Rosaceae.
Pay attention to the photo of this medicinal herb - the cuff has a short rhizome and a rosette of rounded, often fluffy, bright green leaves that form a spherical bush. At the height of summer, loose openwork inflorescences of small yellow flowers rise above them. Flowering is profuse and long lasting.
Alpine cuff (A. aipina) - with trifoliate dense leaves and small inflorescences.
Red cuff (A. erythropoda) - with gray-green dense leaves, 30 cm high.
Soft cuff (A. moiiis) - the most beautiful, stable, undemanding cuff. Its leaves are round, fluffy, pale green with a wavy edge, up to 6 cm in diameter. Peduncles are numerous, up to 60-70 cm high.
Growing conditions. Sunny and semi-shaded areas with loose fertile neutral soils and moderate moisture. Does not tolerate stagnant moisture.
Reproduction. Seeds (sowing in spring) and dividing the bush (in spring and late summer). Easy to transfer division and transfer. Planting density - 5 bushes per 1 m2.
One of the most colorful, consistently decorative and interesting plants in mixed flower gardens. The cuff looks good in "natural garden" style flower beds and in mixborders together with cornflower, heuchera, cornflowers, coreopsis, etc. It is used to decorate bouquets, giving them lightness and delicacy.
Thyme, thyme, Bogorodskaya herb (THYMUS). The family of lamellar (labiate).
A large genus (about 400 species) of herbaceous perennials and dwarf shrubs with recumbent or ascending woody stems and straight, upward-directed peduncles. They grow on rocks in the southern regions of Eurasia. The leaves are small, oval, opposite, leathery, usually overwintering. Due to recumbent, rooting shoots, plants grow rapidly, forming low, dense "rugs" and "pillows" (10-30 cm high), exuding a pleasant aroma. In the middle of summer, numerous heads of inflorescences of small flowers appear.
Lemon-scented thyme (Th. Citriodorus).
Thyme ordinary (T. vulgaris) - height 5-15 cm, leaves are pubescent on the underside.
Creeping thyme (T. serpyllum) - the leaves are larger than those of other species.
Growing conditions. Sunshine with light, well-drained soil, neutral or alkaline. Grows on the sands.
Reproduction. By dividing the bush (in spring and late summer), seeds (sowing before winter), cuttings (in spring). Planting density - 25 pcs. per 1 m2.
Used as a carpet plant in mixed flower beds, in rockeries and on paths among tiles. Looks good in containers.
Chemeritsa (VERATRUM). The family of melantia (liliaceae).
Tall (100-150 cm) herbaceous perennials growing in meadows and steppes of the temperate zone of the Northern Hemisphere.Powerful short rhizome and deep roots. Stems, straight, thick, bear tough, folded along the veins, beautiful elliptical leaves. The flowers are small, open, in a large paniculate inflorescence. All species are similar in appearance.
Chemeritsa white (V. album) -the flowers are whitish-greenish.
Californian hellebore (V. californicum) - white flowers with green veins.
Chemeritsa black (V. nigrum) - The flowers are blackish-brown.
Growing conditions. Sunny areas with rich soils, moisture-loving, but tolerate drought well.
Reproduction. Seeds (sowing in spring), seedlings bloom in the 5-6th year. By dividing the bush (in spring), the cuttings grow slowly, often die. Planting density - 5 pcs. per 1 m2.
Chernogolovka (PRUNELLA). The family of lamellar (labiate).
Perennials with a creeping rhizome, erect low (25-40 cm) stem, the leaves are whole, with an uneven edge flowers in false whorls in the capitate inflorescence.
Chernogolovka large-flowered (P. grandiflora) - 25 cm high.
Chernogolovka Webba (P. x webbiana) - purple flowers.
Common chernogolovka (P. vulgaris) - the flowers are reddish.
Growing conditions. Sunny and slightly shaded areas with garden, moderately moist soils.
Reproduction. By dividing the bush (in spring and late summer). Planting density - 16 pcs. per 1 m2. Able to form thickets, weed.
Euphorbia (EUPHORBIA). The euphorbia family.
Large genus - about 2,000 species, mainly distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of the globe, but there are species in the temperate zone. Their height, leaf shape and type of root system are different, but they stand out for their original flowers.
Look at the photo of this medicinal plant: small flowers are collected in an inflorescence, surrounded by a common goblet-shaped coverlet (which looks like a flower), and the “goblets” are collected in complex umbrella-shaped inflorescences with wrappers. In general, all this gives the impression of a "flying", openwork yellowish inflorescence.
Views. In central Russia, it is recommended to grow the following species:
In sunny dry places - cypress spurge (E. cyparissias) - a low-growing (15-20 cm) plant of the steppes with narrow bluish leaves, densely located on lodging stems.
In sunny places with rich soils - euphorbia multicolor (E. poiychroma), forming a tall bush (50-60 cm) of densely leafy woody shoots.
In the shadow - euphorbia longhorn (E. macroceras) with a high stem (up to 100 cm) and scaly euphorbia (E. squamosa) 20-30 cm high with a spherical transparent bush.
Growing conditions. Euphorbia can grow in a wide variety of conditions, depending on the ecological characteristics of the species, but always on well-drained soils.
Reproduction. Seeds (sowing in spring) or dividing the bush (in spring and late summer).
They easily form self-seeding, capable of weeding. Planting density - 5 pcs. per 1 m2.
Eryngium (ERYNGIUM). Celery family (umbrella).
There are about 230 known species growing on almost all continents. But in culture, perennial grasses with leathery, whole or dissected leaves are grown more often, thorny along the edge. The flowers are small, blue, located in the axils of the bracts and collected in a capitate inflorescence surrounded by tough, prickly leaves of the envelope. Magnificent for their originality and exoticism. Bear fruit abundantly.
Alpine erythematosus (E. alpinum) - 70 cm high, an interesting wrapper made of bluish leaves curved upward.
Amethyst erythematosus (E. amethystinum) - amethyst blue wrapper.
Burgh's Einehead (E. bourgatii) - 30-40 cm high, leathery leaves with a white pattern.
Erythematosus flat-leaved (E. planum) - a plant of the steppes of Europe and Asia, the stems are bluish, the capitate inflorescences are small, glaucous.
Growing conditions. Sunny areas with loose, poor, sandy or rocky soils.
Reproduction. Seeds (before winter) or dividing the bush (in spring and late summer). Planting density - 5 pcs. per 1 m2.
Wormwood (ARTEMISIA). Aster family (Compositae).
Large genus (over 250 species). Of the many species cultivated mainly shrubs and perennials with fragrant silvery leaves, pubescent or tomentose. The flowers are inexpressive, colorless, so it is better to cut the peduncles.
Views. In central Russia, the most decorative and stable are:
Wormwood Pursha (A. purchiana) - forms a cover of straight stems with silvery elongated whole leaves, responds well to constant pruning, can be planted in curbs.
Steller's wormwood (A. steiieriana) - a low plant with spatulate leaves, forming a dense spot, sometimes the leaves overwinter.
Wormwood Louis (A. iudoviciana) - with narrow, lanceolate leaves.
Wormwood Schmidt (A. schmidtiana), especially interesting is the form "Nana" 15-20 cm high with rounded, heavily cut leaves.
Growing conditions. Wormwood is an undemanding plant that grows well in sunny places with any soil, especially on drained sandy alkaline substrates.
Reproduction. By dividing the bush (in spring and late summer), by seeds (sowing in spring). Planting density - 9 pcs. per 1 m2.
In this chapter, you can familiarize yourself with the description of such medicinal herbs and plants as rhubarb, cat's foot, cyanosis, toadflax and mullein.
Rhubarb (RHEUM). Buckwheat family.
A powerful perennial with a multi-headed rhizome, from which large, rounded, five to seven lobed light green leaves on long fleshy ribbed reddish petioles depart.
At the end of spring, a powerful peduncle rises above the rosette of leaves (height up to 150 cm), bearing a large panicle of small whitish-yellow flowers. Grows in the meadows of Eurasia.
Views. In culture, they often use:
Palm-shaped rhubarb (Rh. Palmatum) and R. Tangut (Rh. Tanguticum) with more deeply dissected leaves.
Black sea rhubarb (Rh. Rhaponticum) - dense shiny leaves.
Growing conditions. Well-lit and semi-shaded areas with deep, fertile garden soils and normal moisture.
Reproduction. Seeds (sowing before winter) and dividing the bush (in spring and late summer). Stocking density - single.
Cat's foot, antennae (ANTENNARIA). Aster family (Compositae).
Low (5-10 cm) dioecious plants from pine forests in Europe and North America. Leaves are densely pubescent, white-tomentose, wintering, collected in a socket. They grow due to creeping shoots. Flower baskets are small, rounded, in a capitate inflorescence.
Views. Cat's foot is dioecious (A. dioica) has the following forms:
"Tomentosa" - more densely pubescent "Rubra" - with red pink flowers "Minima" - 5 cm high.
"Rosea" - with pink flowers sun-loving antenna (A. aprica) - 10-15 cm high.
Growing conditions. Sunny areas with poor slightly acidic dry sandy soils. On ordinary garden soils, it grows quickly and loses its decorative effect.
Reproduction. By dividing a bush or a section of a creeping shoot (in spring or late summer). Planting densely -36 pcs. per 1 m2.
On poor sandy soils, it creates a low, slowly growing but stably decorative silvery ground cover.
Cyanosis (POLEMONIUM). Cyanotic family.
Kisterootnye perennials, grow in light forests of the temperate zone of the Northern Hemisphere. Bushes from 25 to 50 cm tall, decorative leaves, numerous hibernating flowers, collected in an inflorescence-brush, blue.
Cyanosis creeping (P. reptans) - 30 cm high.
Cyanosis blue (P. caeruleum) - 60 cm high.
Growing conditions. Lighted or semi-shaded areas with normal garden soils. A very undemanding plant.
Reproduction... Seeds (sowing before winter), dividing the bush (spring, late summer). Self seeding is possible. Planting density - 9 pcs. per 1 m2.
Toadflax (LINARIA). Norichnikov family.
Perennials from the Mediterranean with narrow leaves and two-lipped flowers with a spur in a racemose inflorescence. Plants are graceful, low (40-50 cm).
Dalmatian toadflax (L. daimatica) - the flowers are yellow.
Common toadflax (L. vuigaris) - the flowers are yellow.
Flaxseed Macedonian (L. macedonica) - pubescent plant, yellow flowers.
Toadflax purple (L. purpurea) - the flowers are red.
Growing conditions. Sunny areas with loose sandy dry soils.
Reproduction. Seeds (sowing in spring) and dividing the bush (spring). Planting density - 20 pcs. per 1 m2.
Mullein (VERBASCUM). Norichnikov family.
Plants of open dry places in Europe and the Mediterranean.Biennials and perennials from 50 to 150 cm in height, basal leaves are large, on petioles, the stem is straight, with sessile, whole, pubescent leaves. The flowers are wheel-shaped, small, in a large branched inflorescence. A magnificent plant that provides the architecture of a flower garden.
Mullein hybrid (V. x hybridum) - are more often grown as two years old.
Olympic mullein (V. oLympicum) - height 180-200 cm, leaves are strongly pubescent, yellow flowers.
Mullein purple (V. phoeniceum) - height 100 cm, purple flowers in a sparse brush.
Black mullein (V. nigrum) - height 120 cm, yellow flowers with a red center.
Growing conditions. Sunny areas with loose sandy soils. Drought-resistant.
Reproduction. Seeds (in spring), seedlings bloom in the second year.
The genus of willow (Salix) is represented by many ornamental species, easily pollinated among themselves. The result is hybrids that are difficult to classify. Common features of sinuous willow: curved narrow leaves, bole and branches. All types of plants are characterized by fast growth and unpretentious care. The original curvature of the branches and leaves is due to the uneven growth of the crown. The uniqueness of the tree lies in its uniqueness, the impossibility of finding two identical forms.
More than 400 species of willow are known, but only a few of them are used by designers.
In the wild, it is found in Korea, China. In Western Europe, it grows freely in forests. The tree is 7 m wide, and reaches 3.5 - 13 m in height. Lanceolate leaves 10 cm in size are twisted in spirals. The reverse side of the sheet is white or blue. The color of the bark changes over time from yellowish olive to brown. Such a variety of colors increases the decorativeness of the winter garden, where the sinuous willow is planted.
The plant begins to bloom in March. During this period, the willow is covered with fluffy long inflorescences. Matsudana is undemanding to the soil. It can grow on any: sandy or clayey. But it does not tolerate drought, therefore it often grows near the water. Loves well-lit glades, as it slows down growth in the shade.
In especially frosty winters, the crown can freeze over, but it is easily restored from the roots. Therefore, in areas with frosty winters, Matsudana requires shelter for the winter. The tree is best planted on the south side of the building, where it will be protected from the cold north wind. The plant is susceptible to infections and pests. Therefore, in the autumn and spring, willow must be treated with fungicides and insecticides.
Varieties of sinuous willow Matsudana:
1. Tortuosa (Salix matsudana Tortuosa)
The pyramidal crown of a willow reaches a height of 9 m, a width of -5 m. It grows slowly: up to 30 cm per year. The bark of the branches is distinguished by a yellowish-olive color. With age, it darkens, acquiring a gray-brown color. The tree is distinguished by strongly curved shoots and a slightly curved trunk.
2. Erythroflexuosa (Salix matsudana Erythroflexuosa)
Rarely found in central Russia due to low frost resistance. The spherical crown has a height of 6 m. The bark of the willow is distinguished by an unusual orange-yellow color. The branches, stem, leaves have the same tortuosity as that of Matsudana Tortuosa.
The winding willow Sverdlovsk (Salix Sverdlovskaja isvilistaja) is a plant from the willow family. This hybrid variety is adapted for life in areas with prolonged cold weather. It appeared as a result of the selection work of the scientist Shaburov V.I. The work was carried out in the Botanical Garden of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Sverdlovsk. The main difference between the Sverdlovsk winding willow was its extraordinary vitality and decorativeness.
In terms of decorative qualities, it is not inferior to Matsudana: the same twisted branches, leaves and bark of a grayish-green color. In the sun, the color of the bark turns brown, shiny. The height of the tree does not exceed 4 m. The crown can have a pyramidal or oval shape. Spiral-shaped leaves are painted in silvery-green above, and bluish-gray below.
The tree easily tolerates cutting at any time of the year. This makes it possible to use willow to create unusual shapes for decorating gardens, parks, home gardens, and also as a hedge. The plant is undemanding to soil and external conditions. He does not like shading, therefore it develops better in bright glades.
Review of viable hybrids of the twisting willow of Sverdlovsk:
Sverdlovsk winding -1 Shoots of red-brown color, moderately weeping. Height 4 m. The crown is oval. Frost resistance - 45 ° С.
- 2 The height of the pyramidal weeping crown is up to 12 m. The color of the bark is olive-brown. The leaves are pubescent. Rooting rate of planting material is 100%. In the spring it is covered with yellow-pink earrings. High frost resistance.
- 676 Height 1.8 - 3 m. Has an oval crown. The light olive bark is covered with a waxy coating. Weeping shoots are distinguished by a reddish-brown color. The survival rate of cuttings is 90%. High resistance to frost.
Sinuous willow hybrids have been created more than 50 years ago. They have successfully passed the test of time. The decorative appeal and variety of forms have found application in the design of gardens and parks. Thin twisting branches without leaves are indispensable in weaving baskets, outdoor furniture for backyards, flower pots and other crafts.
The willow does not give root offspring. Growing a tree with the help of seeds will also fail. But all willows are easily propagated by cuttings. The sinuous willow is no exception. April, May is the best time to prepare planting material.
1. Cut shoots (cuttings) 15-20 cm in size. Stick them into pots with wet soil, covering with polyethylene for better rooting. After 10-12 days, the first roots are formed: small plants are ready for planting.
2. Prepare a place for each cutting. It should be located at a distance of 2-2.5 m from other landings, buildings, fences.
3. Mineral or organic fertilizers are introduced into a pit 6060 cm in size. Clay soil can be diluted with sand or peat.
4. The stalk is buried so that all the roots are underground.
5. Water the planting site abundantly.
It should be remembered that you cannot plant willow in the shade. She loves sunny places, protected from drafts.
Although the willow is winding unpretentious, some care rules must be followed:
1. Pruning dead branches is done in late winter or early spring before the leaves open. At this time, the tree is almost not injured.
2. It is necessary to treat willow in early spring and autumn with special preparations for diseases and pests.
3. Do not tie up branches and substitute supports for them. This causes the branches to dry out. Instead of such activities, thinning, corrective pruning is carried out.
4. Do not forget about regular watering.
By performing these simple manipulations, you can maintain the health of the willow for many years.
How is it used
The annual growth of willow branches is 60 cm. Therefore, to thin out the crown, formative artistic pruning is periodically carried out. The unusually attractive crown of the tree with beautifully twisted branches and spiral leaves allows the plant to be used everywhere for creating landscaping. Ease of cutting makes it possible to create original compositions for decorating gardens and parks.
Trees can be placed both alone and in compositions with other plants. A tall willow tree with long weeping branches, planted near a pond or other body of water, looks especially attractive. It also looks advantageous against the background of a green mowed lawn. Plants used as hedges highlight the park's paths beautifully. The created design structures do not lose their decorative effect all year round due to the colored bark and the unusual shape of the branches.
The tree has a branched root system, which is used to strengthen the soil along the banks of water bodies.The sinuous willow is even capable of absorbing heavy metal salts. The roots actively absorb water, draining the soil. Gardeners know this feature and use it to eliminate wetlands in their plots.
Sinuous willows have taken their rightful place in gardens, parks and household farms in Russia, although winter-hardy hybrids have existed for only half a century. Finally, the Russian style of landscape design received excellent material.
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• perennial, less often biennial and annual herbaceous plants
• stems from 40-70 to 100-150 cm tall, branched at the top
• leaves are leathery, whole or twice pinnately dissected, rounded, ovate, triangular or lanceolate, rarely linear, usually spiny-toothed along the edge
• basal and lower stem leaves on petioles, upper - sessile
• flowers are bisexual, small, blue or blue, each located in the axils of the lanceolate bracts, collected in a capitate inflorescence, surrounded by large, rigid, often prickly, whole or feathery leaves of the envelope
• fruit - two-seed
Erythematosus also has the name "sea holly", having nothing to do with the woody holly plant, except for its exceptional thorniness. Comes from the Mediterranean coastline. Perennial species are used in culture, although annuals and biennials are also found in nature. Belongs to the Umbrella family and has at least 250 species in the genus.
The root of the erythematosus is taproot, straight. The whole plant has a purple or blue hue. The height of the stem can reach from 40 to 150 cm, at the top it is branched. Leaves are leathery, either whole, or pinnately dissected twice, ovoid, rounded, lanceolate or triangular, occasionally and linear, the edge is mostly spiny-toothed. The upper leaves of the stem are sessile, while the lower and basal ones are located on the petioles. Small bisexual flowers of blue or light blue color, each of them is located in the axil of the bracts. The flowers are collected in a capitate inflorescence, which is surrounded by tough, large, often prickly leaves of the envelope.
It grows best in completely open and sunny places, on drained soil. In general, the plant can be placed in any soil, but a rich and moisture-absorbing soil is best suited for it. To obtain a richer color of flowers, 2 handfuls of ground eggshell or dolomite flour are introduced under each erythematosus. Care requires weeding and periodic loosening of the soil. Species that have a thin long stem are tied to a support in June. A large number of perennial plant species are winter hardy, therefore, they do not require additional shelter for the winter.
Erythematosus propagates by dividing the bush or seeds.But during division, the roots of a plant often break off, and after that the plants do not take root well. The division must be carried out in May, since during this period the roots of the plant are less injured. When planting, a distance of at least 30 cm is left between the plants. The erythematosus reproduces best by seeds. They are sown in open ground before winter, but it is possible for seedlings in February or March. The first shoots appear after about three weeks. Seedlings are transplanted while they have not grown.
Many consider this plant not too beautiful, rustic, even weedy, but since ancient times it has been used as a valuable medicinal raw material. In modern landscape design, this plant can be used for its worth. Low, bluish bushes make a great backdrop for brighter plants. Recently, erythematosus has gained popularity as a filler for bouquets, both fresh and dried.
Photo: Maxim Minin, Rita Brilliantova