The harvesting campaign in the gardens and summer cottages has already ended. The potato crop is stored in the cellar, and the pickles and preserves are securely rolled up in jars. But it is too early for a real gardener to rest. There are important things that can and should be done in December.
In autumn, winter plants are covered with branches. This is done in order to protect the root system from frost and from the invasion of small rodents. But in December, the branches on winter crops must be disassembled.
The branches are taken apart for a specific purpose. Winter crops should be covered with dry material. Wet branches must be removed so that the plants do not rot. And in the spring, as soon as the snow melts, the remnants of the shelter should be removed completely, otherwise the seedlings will be rare and late.
It is useful to prepare soil mixtures for future seedlings in advance, while the components are at hand and are not frozen.
The following ingredients are suitable for eggplant and pepper:
Tomato and Cucumber Seedling Mix includes:
Shovels, rakes, and other tools have worked well in the garden from spring to fall. Now you need to make sure that the garden tools will last for the next summer season. Gardening tools need to be disinfected. First, you need to clear the inventory from the adhering remains of grass and earth. Then wash and wipe the instrument with a weak solution of potassium permanganate, then dry.
It is necessary to do this right now so that there are no traces of fungus and pathogenic bacteria on the shovels and hoes. Otherwise, the next garden work will begin with the spread of infections throughout the suburban area.
Ashes or ash are an excellent fertilizer and should be stocked up in advance. After you have burned dry leaves and potato tops in the fall, do not throw away the resulting ash. Collect them in a bucket or other container and save for spring field work.
For plants, use wood ash. When burning plastic, rubber and other products, the ash becomes poisonous and is not suitable for fertilization.
Try to germinate some of the seeds. The procedure will help to understand which available seeds will germinate, how long they will germinate, and which ones are unsuitable for planting. This important circumstance should be clarified in advance, since there will be no time for re-seeding in spring.
The soil in the garden depletes over time, and it's time to think about what crops and where will be sown next year. You can't keep everything in your head, so it's better to have a special notebook. In it, make a table and describe the whole process in detail.
In your notebook, note how to change the vegetable garden areas. Please note that it is recommended to plant other vegetables and herbs in those places where root crops have grown for a long time. You can also record which plants have sprouted well and yielded bountiful crops, and which have not, and use this data when planning plantings for next year.
Do not forget about the summer cottage in the house. This is a small vegetable garden on your windowsill. Thin the seedlings of radishes and other crops that you grow on the window in winter, loosen the ground. Make sure that the temperature is optimal for your plants.
Often, hostesses grow onions on a feather on the windowsill. To keep the feathers fresh and elastic for a long time, periodically rearrange the containers with onions from place to place. This little trick will allow you to keep the greens until the New Year.
Someone has their own mini-garden on the balcony, especially if it is glazed and insulated. Change pots, containers and small beds in places from time to time. So the plants will receive heat and sunlight more evenly, therefore, they will ripen faster.
Strawberries and other perennials should be covered with foil or covering material. Better to do it before the actual snowfall. In this case, both garden strawberries and perennials will be reliably protected.
In addition to caring for the plants, you might think about how to embellish the site itself next year. Improve the landscape, develop a different design for the flower beds. A real summer resident always has something to do, even in winter.
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August is insidious with cold dews, so you should worry about plants in the open field in advance. In the early days of the month, you need to remove large fruits from tomatoes, and cover the bed with a film or covering material. The heat will return more than once, and the plants will be able to bear fruit in the open field until the very Indian summer.
It is better to close hotbeds and greenhouses at night. In greenhouses, continue to process tomatoes: remove dry leaves, avoid thickening of greens, pinch the tops in time. Tomato fruits that have gained enough weight should be removed green so that the ones remaining on the branches are poured faster.
You should not remove all the flower clusters; in favorable weather, they can still give a good harvest.
If the frost nevertheless grabbed the fruits on the branch, they should be immersed in hot water at a temperature of 60 degrees for 2 minutes immediately after harvesting in order to avoid further decay.
It is best to store tomatoes in a cool place, placing the stalks upside down in boxes and sprinkling them with peat or sawdust. Do not forget to sort out the tomatoes in time, remove the reddened fruits.
In August, the fruiting of cucumbers is at its peak, so you need to water regularly and collect vegetables in a timely manner. The more often it is harvested, the greater the harvest. Cucumbers are poured mainly at night, so it is better to water them with warm water the night before before picking. On cloudy days, cucumbers are harvested less often.
At the same time, it is necessary to clean the greenhouse of yellow and wilted leaves. Leaves should be removed carefully, at the very base of the branch, otherwise the whip may rot.
To prolong the fruiting of cucumbers, you can warm up the topsoil by mulching with freshly cut grass or humus. Hilling and loosening in the root zone is very useful. Top dressing for cucumbers also does not hurt, for this purpose, 1 glass of wood ash is diluted in a bucket of water and insisted for a day, then watered with the resulting infusion. Spraying plants with ash decoction will protect them from many diseases and pests.
Fruit tree care
The primary task in August is watering trees and shrubs, of course, in the absence of heavy rains. This is a necessary condition for maintaining the strength and successful wintering of plants. Fruit trees are watered and fed with nitrogen fertilizers even before the harvest. Excellent support for weakened trees - fertilizers with trace elements and potassium sulfate (1 tablespoon per bucket of water).
To avoid fruit falling off, the trees should be sprayed with a urea solution (50 g per bucket of water) one month before harvest. Processing is best done in the evening on a cloudy day.
For the winter, it is useful to add phosphorus-potassium fertilizers to the soil (300 g of superphosphate and 50 g of potassium salt per bucket of water). From pests, it is good to spray trees with an infusion of garlic with laundry soap. To prepare the infusion, put 150 g of crushed garlic cloves in a 3-liter jar and fill with water. Insist for at least 3 days, then strain and add 40 g of laundry soap. Processing with such an infusion will protect trees from aphids, ticks and thrips.
Moisture charging irrigation
It is necessary for overwintering plants. If there is little rainfall in November, then be sure to pour water over all garden plantings, especially those with a superficial root system (raspberries, gooseberries, currants, honeysuckle, etc.), new plantings of young plants, as well as conifers, especially thuja. If it is impossible to water the garden, roughly dig in the near-trunk circles along the projection of the crown, without breaking large clods.This will help to collect all the precipitation in a pinpoint and nourish the vital roots.
Simultaneously with the digging of the trunks, sprinkle deoxidizing materials, sources of calcium under the stone trees (cherry, plum, cherry plum, cherry). This is chalk, dolomite or lime flour. For such plants, it is simply necessary for proper fruit formation and vital activity.
If you take care of insufficiently winter-hardy crops in the garden in the fall, the plants will delight with harvest and growth in the new season. The weather presents various surprises in the winter months, and sometimes a layer of mulch of 6-10 cm can be decisive for plants such as strawberries, berry bushes, young plants. And on some soils, mulch not only works as a heater, but also as a protection against moisture loss on sandy soils or the appearance of a crust on clay soil in spring. Instead of mulching organic materials (peat, humus, compost, sawdust, needles, leaves, etc.), you can use pieces of non-woven garden material.
The necessary agrotechnical technique, which should not be neglected. Whitewashing can also be carried out in November at temperatures above 4-5 ° C. This will save many plants from sunburn, which can undermine the health of green pets.
Protecting the garden from rodents
By spreading ready-made poison baits from mice near the trunks, especially young plantings, you will be sure that the seedlings will not have to be treated or bought again. To protect against hares, you can resort to tying the trunks with white covering material, cut into long strips like a bandage. They can be used multiple times. Such a harness will not only serve as protection from damage by rodents, but also from sunburn.
It is imperative to remove debris, plant debris, carrion, eliminate heaps that attract mice. They are happy to accept this gift and organize winter houses there.
Shelter of roses and grapes
The final stage will be in November, the shelter of the garden's most valuable crops, which are roses and grapes. Take your time. They are not afraid of frosts at 5 ° C. On the contrary, the bark is better prepared for the winter changes. When stable frosty weather is established below this mark, it is necessary to proceed to the final shelter.It is best to use dry shelter.
Coniferous plant protection
In most, all conifers common in amateur gardens are winter-hardy crops. The exceptions are specimens grown and brought from nurseries in Europe. It is advisable to mulch them for the first few years. The problem arises from sunburn both in the winter months and in the spring. Therefore, to preserve the green crown, the conifers cover and protect from the sun. Even covering them with a piece of pharmaceutical gauze will protect them from burns.
In areas where there is a lot of snow, branch tying is practiced. This will prevent the plant from losing its shape and breaking the branches.
Calendar of works in the garden and in the garden in December. Work in the country in December. What needs to be done in the garden and in the garden in December. Everything you need to do in the country in December.
What to do in December
1. In December, you can process pumpkins and zucchini for vegetable caviar and jam. To prepare caviar, you will need an additional one eggplant, 0.5 kg of onions, 1 kg of tomatoes and 0.5 kg of carrots per pumpkin weighing 3-4 kg or 2-3 zucchini. You can take both pumpkin and zucchini.
All vegetables must be cut into pieces, individually fry in vegetable oil, mince, salt to taste, adding citric acid, mix and simmer until tender for about 40 minutes over low heat. As soon as the oil floats to the surface, the caviar is ready. Place it in jars, roll it up, flip it over the lids and cover it with a blanket. This technique replaces pasteurization. When the caviar has cooled, place it in a cool place.
2. In order to cook jam, you need to take 1 lemon for every kilogram of pumpkin or zucchini. Peel, cut the pumpkin, zucchini into 1x1 cm cubes. Cut the lemon, remove the seeds, otherwise they will add bitterness to the jam. Pass the lemon together with the peel through a meat grinder, mix with pumpkin or zucchini, add 600-800 g of sugar for each lemon and immediately boil the jam until tender (the cubes will become transparent).
If you have a lot of zucchini, then you can constantly make a "pineapple" dessert from them. Peel one zucchini weighing about 1 kg (you can use squash). Cut into rings 1 cm thick. Cut the lemon, remove the seeds, grate. Mix zucchini with lemon, add 300 g of sugar, a little cinnamon or 2-3 cloves, pour 2 liters of water, put on fire, bring to a boil and boil for 5 minutes. Remove from heat and leave to infuse for 24 hours.
3. If the pumpkins are very large, then juice can be made from them, which is heated to a temperature of about 60 degrees and, without adding sugar, is immediately poured into sterile bottles, which are sealed and stored in the refrigerator. Pumpkin juice is delicious and healthy.
Do not throw away the squeezes, but put them in small portions in plastic bags and send them to the freezer. They make delicious pancakes with the addition of flour and eggs.
4. In winter, it is necessary to collect and dry potato peelings on a newspaper near the battery, putting them in open plastic bags, then take them out to the dacha. Burning peelings together with wood in the stove, you unclog the chimneys, while the ash will be enriched with minerals, which are rich in potato peelings.
5. In an open bag it is necessary to put the shells from the eggs, without tamping, otherwise the remains of the protein on the shell will smell. After 2 to 3 days, when the protein is dry, the shells can be tamped down and the eggshells can be folded back on top. When shells are burned in a furnace or on a fire, the ash is enriched with calcium and potassium.
6. On a flat plate under the battery, pour out the tea (including tea bags) and coffee. When dry, pour into an open bag. When growing seedlings, you can add this dust to the soil for seedlings, you can use it when sowing small seeds in the ground: for half a glass of dust, you need to take 1 teaspoon of seeds and 1 teaspoon of the dust fraction of the AVA fertilizer. Mix everything and sow in the planting paths the way you salt your food. Seedlings will not thicken and no more mineral feeding is required for the whole summer.
7. Separately collect garlic and onion dry husks in a bag. It will come in handy in the spring for preparing a decoction against aphids.
8. Read literature for gardeners and make extracts of interesting material for each culture in a separate notebook. Gradually, you will accumulate unique material for each plant. It remains only to systematize it.
9. You can buy fertilizers, film, covering material, but it is still too early to buy seeds if you want to have new crop seeds. Of the mineral fertilizers, I personally use the complex fertilizer "Uniflor-growth" for growing seedlings. It is very convenient and inexpensive as it only requires 1 teaspoon per 5 L of water for weekly feeding. One bottle is enough to grow 100 seedling bushes.
For introduction into the soil during planting and for feeding perennial plants, I use complex fertilizer AVA. When transplanting seedlings, I put 3-4 fertilizer granules into each hole (one for garlic and onion).Under strawberries - a third of a teaspoon under a bush is embedded in the soil, under a berry bush - a tablespoon, and under an adult tree - three.
I apply fertilizer for horticultural crops once every 2 - 3 years, gradually under some, then under others. Thus, one 600 g can for the season is enough for me. In addition, microelement fertilization will be required during the formation of concrete, for which I use Uniflor-micro, and for flower crops, Uniflor-Bud. They are also enough to have one bottle per season.
10. As an organic fertilizer, I prefer "Gumi", and especially "Fitosporin" containing humate and live soil bacteria Bacillus subtillis, which devours pathogens of fungal and bacterial diseases in the soil: keela, late blight, powdery mildew, scab, gray rot , fruit rot, root rot, stem rot, anthracnose, bacteriosis and others. Both fertilizers increase the humus content in the soil and at the same time disinfect it.
11. As a film for greenhouses I use stable Kotovich, and here's why. Firstly, it is durable, and secondly, it transmits that part of the ultraviolet rays that is useful to plants, and retains that which is harmful. Or the film of the Shar company, which is called Svetlitsa. In addition, I widely use spunbond covering material, so from time to time I buy it in addition, since after 3 - 4 years it decays.
For the soil I use black lutrasil, as well as a two-color film of the same company "Shar". The underside of the film is black, and therefore weeds do not grow under it, while the top is white, reflecting the sun's rays. If you use such a film for mulching the surface, then it will not only prevent moisture evaporation and the appearance of weeds, but also provide additional lighting for the plants growing on it (in the slots, of course!).
❧ If the snow is a donkey, does not creak underfoot, the wind blows from the west or south-west, then there will be a prolonged warming.
❧ If the tops of deciduous trees turn pink and rise up, there will be a weakening of frosts.
❧ If it snows on December 12, there will be snowstorms for a whole week.
❧ If there is a severe frost on December 29, then it will stand until January 19.
❧ Crows and jackdaws sit on the ground for a thaw.
❧ The bullfinch sang - there will be a blizzard, in the morning the tits squeak - there will be frost, jackdaws and crows fly and shout - there will be snowfall.
In the garden in the last month of summer, it is necessary to attend to the harvest in order to prevent overripening, the only exceptions are those vegetables that we are planning to put on seeds:
Separately, mention should be made of tomatoes, for which the optimal time comes in August. Tomatoes are picked twice a week to prevent overripening. You can speed up the ripening process by turning the brushes towards the sun or by limiting the flow of moisture.
There are still many flowering tomato bushes in greenhouses in August. They need sunshine and warmth, which is getting less day by day. The flower curls are unlikely to have time to turn into fruits, so we pinch them off without regret, remove the leaves from the stems up to the fruit brush, pinch off the stepsons. If you have polycarbonate or glass greenhouses in your garden, the work of edging can be postponed for a couple of weeks.
Remember to ventilate tomato greenhouses and close them carefully in bad weather. To avoid dampness, do not overdo it with watering, and stop it altogether by the middle of the month. At the same time, it is worthwhile to do the pinching of the shoots.
So in August, at the dacha, the peak of phytophotor activity begins, we urgently need to protect the plantings in the garden. The onset of the disease can be recognized by brown spots on the leaves and fruits. At the initial stage, late blight can still be quickly overcome by spraying with a solution of manganese and garlic or other drugs.
Throughout March, trees can be sprayed with a three percent Bordeaux mixture, and shrubs with two percent. This is necessary to protect against pests and fungal infections: they hibernate in the depressions of the bark, which are very difficult to reach. Every summer resident should know about this.
Bordeaux liquid can be used if the air temperature is not lower than +5 degrees. All spraying must be completed before bud break.
We told you what to do at the dacha in March. We will definitely continue to add to this list of important things.
Read also our other articles about jobs in March:
Gardener and gardener calendar for March 2021
What garden work are you planning in March? Share your secrets and tips with other gardeners in the comments.
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