Probably, many people know the European swimsuit, or kupava, as it is called in Russia. It is a perennial herb with large bright yellow flowers. They bloom on Ivan Kupala (old style - June 23).
On this ancient Slavic holiday, girls wove wreaths from them, danced around the fire. The Russian name of the flower goes back to it. The botanical name for the swimsuits is trollius.
There is no consensus among scientists about the origin of this name. Some believe that this plant, widespread throughout Europe and also found in the mountains of the Alps, was considered the talisman of mountain spirits - trolls. According to other sources - it comes from the ancient Germanic word "troll" - ball.
In fact, the double flowers of swimsuits, consisting of 20 or more petals, have the shape of a ball. In addition to the European one, many other types of swimsuits are known: Asian - lives in Western and Eastern Siberia, Dzungarian - in the Alatau, Pamir and Tien Shan mountains, Yunnan - in China, Ledebour - in the Far East, etc. But only Ledebour and Asian swimsuits have flowers are bright orange in color.
When you look at the clearing, the emerald green of which is dotted with the bright flowers of the Asian swimsuit, you get the impression that it all shines with many lights. Siberians call them lovingly - "lights" in Western Siberia, or "hot" - in Eastern Siberia. They bloom early in Siberia, immediately after primroses from mid-May to mid-June. One bush has up to 50 peduncles.
They are straight, without branching, high (up to 60 cm). This makes them look good in bouquets. Just keep in mind that after cutting, the stems must be immediately immersed in water, otherwise the flowers will quickly fade. But swimsuits look better in the garden. By the way, the bushes of "lights", after they "burn out", remain decorative until autumn due to the beautiful ornamental foliage.
It's easy to grow a bikini. It should only be borne in mind that it is hygrophilous. Its root system is superficial and does not tolerate drying out of the soil. Apparently, therefore, in nature, it grows either in the partial shade of trees, or on wet meadows near streams, but always on fertile, loose, moisture-consuming soils. Growing a swimsuit in my garden, I solve this problem simply. The soil on my site is loamy. I dig a hole with a diameter of 30 cm and half a shovel deep, fill it with a mixture of garden soil and compost (1: 1), add a glass of wood ash, a tablespoon of superphosphate and carefully dig it over the bayonet of the shovel.
When transplanting plants (in July - August), I spread the roots to the sides and make sure that the bud is not covered with earth. I plant it anywhere - open to the sun or in the shade of trees, but be sure to mulch the soil with foliage or fir needles with a layer no thicker than 5 cm. This allows you to retain moisture in the soil and eliminates frequent watering. If I still water, then not abundantly, so that the soil is moistened only in the layer of roots - three liters per bush.
A swimsuit can be grown in one place without transplanting for 5-7 years. Then the bush should be divided and planted, otherwise the flowers become smaller, and there are fewer of them. The plant is very responsive to fertilizing - nitrogen - in early spring, superphosphate and potassium salt - after flowering, when flower buds are laid. The bather perfectly tolerates the harsh Siberian winters under a thick layer of snow and does not need special shelters.
You can propagate the swimsuit and seeds. They are black, shiny, rather large. You can sow them in the fall of the harvest year or next spring. In the latter case, they must be stratified. The seeds should be mixed with a moistened substrate (sawdust, sand, peat, etc.), wrapped in a canvas cloth, polyethylene and placed under a refrigerator freezer or under snow, where the temperature is about 0 ° C. Once a week, the bag must be ventilated, make sure that no mold appears on the substrate, mix and moisturize as needed.
After 2-3 months, the seeds can be sown. It is better to do this in early spring. Close them up to a depth of 1 cm. The place must be taken in the shade. Seedlings appear in three weeks. All this time, the soil should not be allowed to dry out.
I achieve this in the following way: I cover the crops with damp burlap and lightly sprinkle with straw so that the burlap does not dry out quickly. Once a week I take off the sacking for ventilation and control of soil moisture. With this care, seedlings are friendly and healthy. By autumn, seedlings can be planted in a permanent place. The swimsuit blooms from the second year.
The Asian bather is not only a beautiful plant, but also useful. It has medicinal properties. In his book "Herbs of Life and Their Seekers" Professor GV Krylov writes: "In folk medicine, the water infusion of the Asian swimsuit is used for jaundice, as a diuretic, anti-inflammatory and antiscorbutic agent.
An aqueous infusion of roots is drunk for dropsy, epilepsy and scabies. " Here is such a wonderful plant in all respects - the Asian swimsuit.
Everyone who is interested in this plant can find it on my website. sem-ot-anis.narod.ru, or contact me at tel. +7 913-8518-103, Gennady Anisimov, Tomsk
Gennady Anisimov, Tomsk
Stratification.If the seeds of such plants as crown anemone, alissum, heliopsis, heliantemum, cornflower, gentian, basil, armeria are sown at home for seedlings, you will have to stratify them in a moist substrate in the refrigerator for 30–45 days beforehand. Stratification is a long-term keeping of seeds in conditions of low positive temperatures (0. –4 ° С).
Seeds of perennials that have a dense shell or a long germination period are best sown in the fall, before winter. So you will replace the forced stratification necessary for germination with a natural one. If the seeds were purchased late or for some reason the sowing was not done on time, the seeds can be sown even in January - in bowls, which are then buried as deep as possible in the snow until spring, and in the spring they can be dug into the ground and wait for the shoots.
For sowing, take shallow bowls (no more than 8-10 cm in height), fill them with a light, moisture-absorbing substrate based on low-decomposed high-moor peat (pH 5.5-6.0) with the addition of calcined river sand or perlite (ratio of about 3: 1) ... Seeds, as a rule, are sprinkled with a thin layer of dry sand, the crops are covered with a black plastic bag and a temperature of about +15 is provided. +22 ° С (the germination temperature depends on the specific type of plant and must be specified before sowing).
Every day, the crops of perennials are checked: they remove condensate from a bag or glass, spray it, check if seedlings have appeared. Usually shoots appear in 12-15 days, but longer periods of emergence of shoots are possible. Seedlings at the stage of 2-3 true leaves are cut into separate pots and kept in a bright place at a temperature not higher than +18 ° С. Among perennials, there are many species, the seeds of which must be subjected to alternating temperatures so that they rise quickly and amicably (or simply rise). These are, for example, seeds of black hellebore, milkweed multicolored, swimwear, dicentra. They are provided with high temperatures at the beginning of germination (about +15. + 22 ° С), then the temperature is maintained for several weeks.
at the level of 0. +5 ° С, and then again raise to +18. +20 ° C.
Plants are planted in the ground after the threat of frost has passed. Many species bloom in the second year after sowing, and the cultivated delphinium, when sown in March, can bloom already in the year of sowing, in the fall. Some species of perennials bloom 3-4 years after sowing.
Separately, it should be said about heterotic hybrids, which, when propagated by seeds, bloom in the first year after sowing. Such perennials in our country are called “express perennials”. There are not very many of them yet, and the reason is, first of all, that the seedlings must necessarily go through a cooling period, which is quite difficult to do at home. Seedlings of plants such as delphinium, coreopsis, lavender, penstemon do not need low temperatures to establish flower rudiments.
Even in Ancient Russia, the healing qualities of this flower were highly appreciated.
Also, decoctions from the leaves of the bathing suit are used for insomnia.
But it is necessary to use the bathing suit for therapeutic purposes with extreme caution, since this plant is poisonous. More precisely, the rhizome is poisonous, but medicinal decoctions, ointments and powders can be prepared from the outer part. But still, before using such funds, it is better to consult with practicing herbalists.
Some traditional medicine practitioners are investigating the anti-tumor effect that this plant may have. But practical tests have not yet been carried out.
Despite the fact that this flower is offered to be used even in cooking and its medicinal properties are widely advertised, people who are ignorant of herbal medicine should simply enjoy the beauty of the bathing suit. This plant is toxic and improper use can lead to poisoning.
Did you know that decoctions were prepared from the bathing suit and with the help of them fleas, lice and other parasites were driven out of the house. Animals were also treated with this composition.
On straight, rarely branching stems, 1-2 large-sized flowers, having the shape of a ball, grow.
The name of the swimsuit in Latin is Tróllius, derived from the German word "Trollblumen", which means "troll flower", so another name for the flower is "trollius".
The plant has a powerful root system, dark green decorative leaves, the shape of which is finger-dissected. Flower petals with a glossy finish, color - golden yellow and orange.
Did you know? The flowering of the swimsuit occurs in late May - early June, and its duration is up to one month (all plant species are honey plants). There are about 30 species of swimsuit, two of which are native to North America.
Eurasia is the mainland where the swimsuit most often grows. In Russia and the CIS countries, you can find about 20 different types of trollius.
The bathing suit plant (Siberian rose, trollius, kupavka) is a flower shrouded in legends. Its name comes from the German trollblume, which in translation sounds like "troll flower". Scandinavian beliefs say that these amazingly beautiful flowers were the favorites of forest dwellers - fairy trolls.
According to one legend, the Russian name for the flower appeared due to the love of the bather for wet growing areas. And if you believe an older Slavic legend, the flower owes its name to the patroness of reservoirs - the goddess Agrafena the bathing suit.
In the natural environment of growth, the bathing suit has about twenty varieties, but only a few garden forms are grown in culture. The European swimsuit has become very common.
Of course, species swimsuits are the most common in our gardens. "European" (T. europaeus) and "Asian" (Trollius asiatlcus) swimsuits bloom almost simultaneously - at the end of May, "Chinese" (T. chinensis) and "Ledebura" (T. ledebourii) - in the second half of June.
These are the brightest of the species swimsuits! Their flowers are orange-red, shiny, large, 5-6 cm in diameter, because of the numerous nectary petals, they seem almost double. The total flowering period lasts over two months. The height of plants in these species is different, but on average from 70 to 100 cm.
The flowers of the "Chinese" swimsuit have an unusual shape, wide open, bright orange. Long petals-nectaries, located in the center, rise above the flower, in the form of sharp feathers, like the Mohawk of the Indians. A similar flower structure has a variety "Etna" (‘Etna’).
But from the undersized there is only one species - the "Dwarf" bathing suit (T. pumilus), the height of the plant varies from 15 to 25 cm. The flowers are wide, flat, similar to a large buttercup - up to 3 cm in diameter.
The Altai bathhouse (T. altalcus) has a contrasting center in the form of a dark spot inside the flower. Blooms in June, but not for long.
All bathers are sun-loving, but grow well in light shade. In the sun, plants grow more vigorous, but flowering times are shortened.
Most of the garden forms and varieties are united under the name “Kulturnaya” bathing suit (T. x cultorum). As usual, unlike natural plants, varietal plants have larger flowers, often double, of various colors - from pale yellow to bright orange-red.
Bather "Elist of All" (Earliest of AH) - the earliest, blooms in early May, abundant flowering, low plant, medium-sized flowers, sepals are dark yellow, nectaries are light yellow. "Gol Cross" (Orange Crest) - sepals are yellow, and nectaries are orange, flowers are medium-sized, plants are low. It also blooms profusely from mid-May to early June.
The European swimsuit (T. europaeus), the most widespread in our gardens, blooms at the end of May. The Golden Queen blooms last, from the end of June to the end of July.
Varieties with yellow or lemon yellow: Lemon Queen, Earliest of All, Canary Bird, Superbus.
And there are only two varieties, with unusual light cream flowers with lemon stamens: Alabaster and Cheddar.
The most suitable conditions for them are full sunlight with sufficient moisture. Alabaster repeats flowering at the end of summer.
The herbaceous plant is formed in stages. In the first year, a leaf rosette with a height of up to 40 cm is formed, from which in the next season weakly leafy shoots-peduncles, crowned with double flowers of yellow shades, develop.With each year of development, the number of graceful peduncles increases.
Flowering lasts about a month and is observed in the first half of summer. And the carved leaf plates, painted in bright shades of green, do not lose their decorative effect throughout the entire growing season of the culture.
Although for a long time traditional healers have used the bathing suit in the preparation of various decoctions, the florist must remember that the plant is poisonous.
When growing a strong plant with good immunity, problems appear extremely rarely.
In case of manifestation of diseases, it is necessary to stop their development with the help of a fungicidal preparation and remove the affected parts of the shoots. In the fall, before preparing for winter, all plant residues must be removed.
In order for the plant to fully develop and delight with its lush flowering over the years, it is necessary to correctly plant the swimsuit.
When choosing a place, it should be remembered that the open sun makes the flowers smaller and paler, and the lack of light affects the growth rate. Therefore, the best option would be a shaded area with access to bright, soft light. The soil should be fertile, loose and moist with a close occurrence of groundwater.
Taking care of your swimwear is not difficult at all. Flowers should be loosened in time, weeded, watered and fed. It is possible to mulch the plants with peat well to retain moisture. It is also recommended to add organic-rich soil to the roots of the roast.
Cutting off the flower stalks on swimsuits can cause these plants to re-bloom. But for the winter, you should not cover the swimsuits. This flower tolerates chemical cold very well.
Top dressing of swimsuits is carried out as for other flowers at the earliest dates in the spring before flowering, and then in the fall.
The bush of swimsuits remains decorative throughout the year, and dies off with the onset of frost. The leaves are trimmed leaving 2-3 cm of the petiole above the ground. A lower cut can lead to freezing of the buds and poor flowering the next year.
The plant can reproduce in different ways: by division, cuttings and seeds. Seeds are sown immediately after collection or before winter in the ground or boxes. During sowing in the spring, seed stratification is required for 3 - 4 months at a temperature of 2 - 4 degrees. Seedlings appear in the spring. Amicable shoots appear in mid-May. They need watering when the soil dries out and shading. After the appearance of the 2nd true leaf, the seedlings dive at a distance of 8 - 10 cm from each other. You can plant swimsuits in a permanent place from the spring of the 2nd year or for 3-4 g.
European swimsuit blooms in the 2nd year after germination. It can usually be found in Europe and Western Siberia. It forms a bush: the lower leaves form a basal rosette. In shape, they have palmate-separate leaves, of 5 toothed lobes along the edge. In the upper part, the stem of the European swimsuit can branch. The flowers are globular, dense and with a pleasant aroma, usually yellow in color. Flowering begins in late May - early June and lasts about 4 weeks. The seeds ripen in July, it is better to sow them freshly harvested or before winter in a specially designated shaded area in open ground. When the seedlings grow up a little, they must be dived, leaving a distance of about 10 cm between the plants. Next spring, young seedlings can be planted in a permanent place in the flower bed. They will bloom in the same year.
Asian swimsuit forms a powerful bush up to 80 cm high. Outwardly, it resembles a European swimsuit, only its flowers are more open and orange-red in color. Some buds are double-shaped. The Asian swimsuit blooms in late May - early June. It depends on the growing area. The best way to propagate a plant is through seeds.
There is also a way of vegetative propagation. It occurs by dividing the curtain or separating several peripheral shoots from an adult plant along with roots. Division is best done in late August - early September, when the shoots are already formed in the buds and there is time before winter for their rooting.
The mother plant is dug up, the soil is shaken off the roots and washed well. Next, divide it into several parts with a knife. The size of the landing units can be arbitrary. It is important that each of them has several rosette shoots with roots. The surface of the sections is treated with a solution of potassium permanganate or ash. Make sure that the slices do not dry out.
Plants need to be planted quickly; for this, the planting places are prepared in advance. When planting, the root collar is deepened by 2 cm, maintaining a distance during planting of 30 - 40 cm.
Young ground shoots that appear in spring and summer rosettes with a part of the underground stem are taken for cuttings. They respond well to fertilizing with mineral fertilizers.
The Asiatic bather is also called the Asiatic light, and the inhabitants of some Siberian regions call this flower “hot”. It is easy to guess that he was named a bathing suit for growing on moist soils of meadows and forest glades. The plant belongs to herbaceous perennials of the Kupalnitsa genus and belongs to the Buttercup family. In the wild, it can be found in many regions of Western Siberia, in the territory of Central and Eastern Siberia, as well as in the expanses of Altai and Mongolia.
The Asian swimsuit grows well both in wet meadows and forest glades, and in highlands. For its beautiful flowers, this plant is barbarously exterminated in its natural growing environment, but nowadays, by purchasing seeds or seedlings in stores, the Asian swimsuit can be successfully grown in garden plots.