HOW THE WOMEN OF HISTORY MADE BEAUTIFUL WITH PLANTS
MASK TO HAVE MANIMORBIDE AND WHITE
by Caterina de 'Medici
Caterina de 'Medici used the following beauty recipe to have soft and white hands:
«You will have beautiful, white and very soft hands if you consistently use this healthy ointment: take two ripe apples of any quality and divide them into quarters after having cleaned the pulp and core. In a clove of the aforementioned apples, sink a clove and put the apples in the bath in rose water, to be bought from the apothecary (herbalist editor's note) and make the rose water barely cover the apples. Leave in the bathroom for a whole day and then boil for ten minutes. Then remove the cloves, crush the pulp well, add a little wheat flour, so as to make a little thick porridge and spread it on your hands. Leave it for an entire hour and then rinse with lukewarm water ».
The hand beauty mask should be done at least once a week.
Here she is, Katie again spotted in SoHo with an envelope of the Italian brand born in 1612. Photo Getty
Here it is, it falls again. Katie Holmes is the shop's regular customer Perfume-Pharmaceutical Workshop Santa Maria Novella. With her improvised bun, she strolls around with her bag full of cosmetic preparations? Or who knows what other products ...
L'Florentine company has always been known for its essences. Its waters, prepared with recipes of the friars. The first director to prepare one, in 1612, was Fra 'Marchissi. But a few years earlier it was Catherine de 'Medici, Queen of France, who commissioned the Dominican friars to prepare a special essence: the Queen's Water.
Since then, more than 400 years have passed but the company still continues to prepare cosmetics (soaps, waters, perfumes, creams ...), but also candles, liqueurs and food preparations, with high quality ingredients and artisanal processes. To which are added modern technologies.
A world that Katie Holmes loves a lot.
Katie walking with Suri with brown hair and the same length. Getty photo
Discover in the GALLERY the latest photos of Katie walking around New York. In the company of his daughter Suri Cruise (they look like two long-haired twins...) or some excellent cosmetics ...
The idea of the essay "Lovers and queens. The power of women "was born, according to the author Benedetta Craveri, from a series of articles on the queens and favorites of the kings of France, written for the cultural pages of the" Republic ". From the union of these articles, an extraordinary work begins, capable of teaching without possessing the aseptic didactic objective.
Anyone who has had the opportunity to read other Craveri's books knows very well her modus operandi: smooth writing, historical details, sources reported in great detail and a way of telling the characters that serves as a cuddle for the reader.
The book starts with recounting the life of Catherine de 'Medici at the court of France, up to Marie Antoinette of Habsburg. Between these two queens, which cover a time span of over two hundred years, scroll the descriptive portraits that the author makes for all the queens and favorites, known and less known, who have alternated on the throne or bed of the kings.
The extraordinary figure of Catherine de Medici, Queen of France, is shown to us as a fervent Catholic, yet a follower of Nostradamus, who despite ten children, saw the end of her husband's lineage in favor of that of her son-in-law Henry of Navarre. Italian and hated by the French people for the massacre of St. Bartholomew's night, she did not have an easy married life, given that despite her young age, her husband was cheating on her with Diane of Poiters.
His son-in-law, Henry of Navarre, between one religious war and another, after a rather complicated first marriage with the queen Margot, married the second Medici destined to ascend the throne of France: Maria. The latter proved to be a woman unable to understand that the role of queen was detached from that of wife, as she was more committed to holding a grudge against her husband than to dealing with state affairs and showing stability as a couple. In the meantime, he collected favorites from which he had a large number of children whom he not only recognized, but grew up with the legitimate ones.
The historical lover of Henry of Navarre was the shrewd and unfortunate Gabrielle d’Estrées (portrayed in a series of enigmatic and famous paintings), who died a step away from becoming queen. Enrico passionately loved this girl who contributed to her conversion to Catholicism and did everything to bring her to the altar. Perhaps it was anyone who decided the fate of the poor woman who officially died in childbirth, but unofficially poisoned, as will happen in the following centuries to other favorites.
We arrive at Anna of Austria, described as a pious and extremely beautiful woman, not only for her white skin and beautiful hands, but also for the fact that at almost forty, by a miracle, she had two children: the one who will pass to history as Louis XIV the "Sun King" and Philip of Orleans.
She is the author of that "scandal" ante litteram, for the liason with the Duke of Buckingham told by the good Dumas in the "Three Musketeers" and managed to get pregnant by chance. The king, her husband, homosexual, due to a sudden storm, had found himself alone with her. Nine months later the Sun King was born and after two years, his younger brother Philip, known as Monsieur, clearly homosexual but nevertheless dedicated to procreation.
The Sun King, apotheosis of the Ancien Régime, of the splendor of the court and of an era that reached its most splendid peaks before its tragic decline, married Maria Theresa of Habsburg, a wife not up to her role as queen, which he replaced in his bed and in public, with numerous favorites. The best known was undoubtedly the Marquise of Montespan, cultured, shrewd, elegant and beautiful, she managed to keep the king tied to her until the poison scandal, in which she was involved.
What is interesting to note is the role that the "lovers" or "favorites" have managed to conquer at court over the centuries. From simple "objects" of pleasure for the sovereign, bearers of children and embarrassment for Catholic morality, they are transformed into strong, determined, cultured figures, capable of obtaining what they want.
And while initially, to have the roles of favorites, were mainly women who "naturally" belonged to noble status, Louis XV breaks all labels, bringing to court, first the future Marquise Pompadour, daughter of a rich bourgeois, and then Du Barry , a high-class prostitute.
Finally, we come to Marie Antoinette of Habsburg, the "martyr queen", the one that Craveri describes as proud, with a high, inflexible gaze, her lip slightly protruding while disapprovingly she was carried on the cart to the place of execution.
It is interesting to note how Marie Antoinette, Queen of France, belonging to the Habsburgs of Austria, the best of the pure blood of the European nobility, and Du Barry, share the same fate: the guillotine.
What the author, however, specifies is the diversity with which both go to meet their destiny: the coldness and composure of Marie Antoinette, capable of remaining impassive like a true queen, are opposed to the screams, the tears and the desperation of the Du Barry, the harlot who came from the people and who, despite the clothes, the pomp and the jewels, would always remain a "commoner".
Marie Antoinette and her elegance, close more than two hundred years of history, queens, favorites, intrigues, poisonings, legitimate and illegitimate children, business of poisons and necklaces. The great story of the French monarchy ends here, with a queen who has become a myth.
Grandma Assunta wondered as she walked home with an apron full of artichokes, ready to be transformed into the seasoning of the pasta of the day, home-made fettuccine.
It was the Etruscans to bring it to Italy, coming from Egypt, where we find it depicted in capitals and bas-reliefs. Around the year one thousand were the Arabs to discover it in Sicily and it was Filippo Strozzi who brought the artichoke from Naples to Florence and thanks to Caterina de 'Medici the artichoke continued its journey to France when it married Henry II.
There library the house was certainly not supplied, but there was no shortage of an Artusi, for the recipes, an agronomist's manual, for sowing, the work of the vegetable garden and the orchard. A distant relative used to bring a copy of Friar Indovino's calendar to the farm, a reading that seemed made especially for farmers, with practical advice for farmers and housewives, moon phases, weather forecasts, curiosities.
The artichoke is the protagonist in the kitchen from Easter to late spring. Introduced in the kitchen for centuries, praised by Theophrastus and Pliny, it is one of the most appreciated products by chefs since ancient times.
In kitchen Nonna Assunta had learned to prepare it stuffed, boiled, fried, baked, raw, stewed, sautéed and sometimes even cooked under ashes. She had collected recipes from friends and acquaintances, but she had also experimented, set her imagination in motion to propose an appetizing and always different dish.
Nanna Assunta had received from her sister-in-law Elvira, who lived in Florence, and who had specialized in phytotherapy, a recipe intended for cosmetic use, nothing less than a beauty mask. Beautiful woman Aunt Elvira. The inner and more tender part of the artichoke was used for this purpose previving the plant of the hardest external parts, he minced it with the crescent adding drops of lemon juice, until obtaining a soft cream to be applied on the face for about 20 minutes.
The result: one toned and elastic skin. Nonna Assunta reserved the operation for the early hours of the day, Sunday morning, when the house was still immersed in silence. He tried to move in peace and not to wake the others, also not to be found with his face smeared, he was almost ashamed. These were not the times when women devoted particular attention to their bodies, but grandma Assunta has never abandoned this habit.
Grandfather Carlo took care of the artichoke positioned in the garden for its inflorescences. He was proud of it, especially when someone said that the artichoke was a typically Mediterranean vegetable and that Italy was its largest producer. For him it became a source of pride to be able to accompany the neighbors to admire and, therefore, to be able to praise the value of his artichokes. Artichokes that also took their way to the neighbors' kitchen. But it doesn't do anything. These were exchanges that ended up cheering up the harsh life of the fields.
In his own way he had studied the plant, had gathered news from who knows where, and loved to remember the properties of the leaves, the external ones, which were harvested from April to May, before flowering and left to dry in the shade. They came preserved in paper or canvas bags. Useful for treating gallstones or against anemia, stimulating diuresis, detoxifying the liver, lowering cholesterol. So he told.
The rhizome, with its fleshy roots, is harvested in summer, in July-August and left to dry in the sun. It is kept in the glass.
Nonna Assunta had read from the hairdresser, a luxury for those times, that Marilyn Monroe, young and unknown, she was elected beauty queen in California during the Artichoke festival. And she told it to her friends, as a notion not to be forgotten.
The hands of Nonna Assunta they became unwatchable after cleaning the artichokes, black. The effective natural remedy was lemon, a powerful stain remover and capable of eliminating even odors. She rubbed the lemon hard on her hands and, if she was not satisfied and the hands were not very clean, she tried wet cornmeal or baking soda and water.
The waste they ended up in the pot to give a precious broth to be used as a base for a risotto or soup. Otherwise they ended up in the pig barn. In fact, for lactating sows, artichokes favor milk. Nothing was thrown away. Even then, food waste was fought.
It is eaten with your hands and slowly: there is something ritual in stripping the artichoke by removing the leaves one by one, dipping them in a sauce of oil, lemon, salt and pepper, and then sharing them with the lover.
Ingredients for four people:
500 g of egg noodles
100 g of smoked bacon
50 g of grated Parmesan cheese
extra virgin olive oil
Brown the finely chopped onion and garlic in a large pan in hot oil. Add the artichokes cut into slices, after having cleaned them and eliminated the hardest leaves and the fluff of white bristles and dipped them in water and lemon. Add the sliced bacon and brown in a pan.
Add the shelled peas, salt, pepper. Cook over medium heat, stirring occasionally and pouring hot water as needed. Finally add the finely chopped parsley.
Cook the fettuccine in plenty of salted water, drain, season with the mixture, sprinkle with Parmesan cheese and serve.
The Notepad of Michael the Great
When Matteo Renzi proposed only women as leaders in the last European elections (May 2014), a southern notable of his party chewed bitter, not tolerating being ousted by a five for Beppe Grillo made up of showgirls and branded by him, more kindly, as one Bait and switch. Being a former magistrate, Michele Emiliano certainly knew "Les six livres de la République" (1576), in which the jurist Jean Bodin did not hesitate to confine women to the margins of civilian life, believing that they should only deal with their household chores.
"C’est la peste de l’air, l'Erynne envenimée": this is how, forty years later, the Protestant poet Théodore Agrippa d’Aubigné describes Catherine de 'Medici, widow of Henry II and regent of France from 1560. According to the historian Cesarina Casanova ("Queens by chance", Laterza, 2014), the poisonous Erinni - which makes the air unbreathable with its perfidy and its diabolical machinations - is the distillation of all the clichés that the Renaissance draws from medieval misogynist culture: the woman in power seen as a mockery of nature, tendentially witch, lustful, incestuous, heretic.
The origins of this image are ancient. If the Socrates of the Platonic dialogues did not exclude the possibility for women to access leadership positions, Aristotle in the third book of "Politics" does not even mention her among the categories of "non-citizens". With the exception of Euripides, Greek tragedy is full of lascivious female figures with a destructive genius. The myth of Pandora, told by Hesiod, attributes to a woman the origin of the struggles and pains of humanity. In Augustan Rome, Livia - Octavian's upright wife - had earned a reputation as an intriguer due to the influence exerted on the emperor's choices. Moreover, it is true that in the Bible the deeds of two heroines like Judith and Esther, called by God to save their people from genocide, stand out. But in "Ecclesiastes" the father of the family is incessantly exhorted to keep his wife and daughters in check and well guarded at home. In the Pauline epistles, then, the submission of women to male power is categorical. In short, in the Greco-Roman world as in the Judeo-Christian one, the misogynist tradition was rooted in a hierarchy of the sexes constitutive of the stability of the family unit and, at the same time, of demographic growth.
In the early Middle Ages, however, the shattering of dominions and the plurality of customary uses favored - at least to some extent - the rise of women. The Salic law itself allowed them to inherit territories that were not under its jurisdiction. It was a collection of rules, probably dating back to the time of the Merovingian king Clovis I (466-511), tailored for a social order based on the clan, in which the land was not strictly private property, as the peasant community could boast certain cultivation rights. An example of a rise from humble births is that of the plebeian Baddo, who lived in the sixth century. Concubine of the Visigothic king Recaredo, she was married in 586 and associated with the throne after the conversion of both to Christianity. In the following century, the Lombard queens occupied the scene. The most famous is Ansa (756-774), Desiderio's “conunx amatissa”, “very reverend” administrator of the royal palace. Bishop Incmaro's "De ordina palatii" will make it explicit, in 882, how the function of "consors reigns" was associated with the superintendence of public functions and private relations in the domus regia.
After the year 1000, the protagonism of the queens however begins to become too cumbersome for the factions of the court and for the king's own authority. Under the pretext of sterility, infidelity or lack of attractiveness, many will be dismissed without much compliments.According to the English chronicler William of Newburgh, the Capetian Philip Augustus (1165-1223) the day after the wedding repudiated the eighteen year old Ingeburge - sister of Canute VI of Denmark - for her unbearably fetid breath. In only one case, instead, it will be a queen who asks for the annulment of the marriage on her "whim". It is that of Adelaide d'Angiò, widow of the Count of Gévaudan, who - after a brief coexistence - will leave the very young and sickly Frankish king Louis V the Ignavo (967? -987) to join with William of Arles.
With the rule of the single heir, firstborn and male, introduced in the early decades of the eleventh century, the king's wife - as the mother of the future sovereign - can finally be decorated with royal insignia. The birthright, sanctioned to put an end to fratricidal rivalries over the division of the hereditary axis, is contemporary with the emergence of a dynastic conception of power. The growing emphasis placed on the lineage of the bride and the legitimacy of the offspring will follow. Only Germany lacked a corpus iuris for the designation of the king and for the succession to the throne. Before 1356, they decided the balance of power between the electoral princes. Under their mandate, Agnes, daughter of the Duke of Aquitaine and widow of Emperor Henry III (1017-1056), will rule for six years as fiduciary agent for her son, the future Henry IV. Fearing a weakening of the imperial power, in 1062 she was deposed by the archbishops Annone of Cologne and Adalbert of Hamburg.
Contemporary of Agnese is Matilde di Canossa (1046-1115), the most legendary female personality of her time. Absolute protagonist of the investiture struggle, which pitted popes and Germanic emperors on the problem of episcopal appointments, he will split European public opinion. For her support of Pope Gregory VII, she will be compared by the Ghibellines to the impious Jezabel of the Old Testament, by the Guelphs to the Virgin Mary. Moreover, as Jacques Le Goff pointed out, the Marian cult endowed women with a status cloaked in a religious aura, even to holiness. In the "Vita Mathildis", however, the monk Donizone describes her as a warlike leader, a kind of Pantasilea in front of which Oberto, Marquis d'Este and head of the imperial league in the siege of Sorbara (1084), had fled trembling " complaining like a nun ”.
In the "Liber de Vita Christiana", however, he had forbidden women to lead troops and judge crimes, being activities forbidden to them by the Holy Scriptures. The virile profile of the daughter of Beatrice of Lorraine will be resumed in the Renaissance period, along the lines of the warriors of Ludovico Ariosto, as an emblem of fighting virtue in the service of the Church. In the basilica of San Pietro, the funerary monument of Lorenzo Bernini represents her with the insignia of royalty: the scepter firmly held in the right hand and the papal tiara wrapped in the left arm, in a protective act. Above a pomegranate, symbol of the wealth of good works. The seventeenth-century one will not be the last reinterpretation of the myth of Matilda. In 1862, in a unified Italy but in which the question of Rome was still open, the iconography of the countess was reworked by eminent Catholic religious and proposed as a shining example of mediator between the two powers.
Despite the anathemas of Ivo of Chartres and other preachers of the time, the feudal military model will continue to offer several examples of women in arms on the battlefield, at least until the beginning of the fourteenth century. Just 25 years old, Eleonora of Aquitaine in 1147 was in the Holy Land alongside her husband - the King of France Louis VII - in the second crusade against the Turks. Isabella (1295-1358), daughter of Philip the Fair, formed a small mercenary army in 1326 to oust her husband, the King of England Richard II. Nicknamed "The Wolf", she will be depicted in popular literature across the Channel as a kind of "femme fatale", cruel manipulator of men and dissolute lover of Baron Roger Mortimer. In the version of the famous "Lament of Eduard II", edited by Sir Francis Hubert and published in 1628, one can read these cold verses on his alleged evil: "There is more pity in a tiger's claw / there is less poison in the sting of a scorpion / more delicacy in the paw of a hungry lion / less fright strike the eyes of the basilisk [mythological snake that petrified with the look] / the call of the hyena for travelers / the breath of the panther / the false tears of the crocodile ".
The margins of female autonomy linked to feudal society gradually wear out over the course of the fourteenth century. A new idea of the family is emerging, which becomes the foundation on which to rest the building of the modern state. Its cohesion is therefore considered of vital importance, and legislators will spare no measures to protect it from the potential threats - irrationality, inconstancy - deriving from female nature. In the fifteenth century, jurists and humanist scholars borrowed and developed the concepts of “fragilitas et infirmitas sexus” from medical knowledge and Roman law. Criminal doctrine therefore recommends judges to take into account the inherent weakness of women in the imposition of sentences.
An inequality of treatment, defined by Deirdre Park as "judicial cavalry", in reality consistent with the prohibition of holding public office, as well as with that of filing a complaint or testifying in trials. The prevailing orientations of legal culture will find a definitive arrangement in André Tiraqueu's “De Legibus Connubiabilis” (1546). On the one hand, the inferiority that authorized a minor punitive fury is theorized, on the other hand the exclusion of women from "virilia officia" (war and government) and from succession in fiefdoms, "ob garrulitate" (for petulance) is reaffirmed and because “Foeminae sua natura dominationis cupidae sunt” (for innate thirst for power).
The rediscovery of the Salic law, which reserved dynastic continuity only for male descendants, takes place in this context. Starting from the fourteenth century and throughout the Renaissance, several generations of jurists will strive to make it irreversible. And the repertoire of misogynistic clichés, first of all that of the "imbecillitas mentis" (incapacity of discernment) of the weaker sex, lent itself well to attesting its undeniable necessity. “Tomber en quenouille”, it was said when it was not respected. The expression cannot be translated literally, but indicated the dejection of those who fall into a subordinate position like that of the woman - here identified with the distaff ("quenouille"), that is, with the only tool suitable for female hands. Nonetheless, in sixteenth-century France the retreat of the social condition of women will coincide with a surprising progress in her intellectual prestige. On the basis of Boccaccio's "De claris mulieribus", translated at the instigation of Anne of Brittany, wife of Charles VIII, a literary genre destined to a long fortune was born, centered on praise of the "femme forte" and the "femme savante".
The real novelty of this female Renaissance is constituted by the entry of women into the cultural arena, with the declared project of challenging the male monopoly of writing. After the work of Christine de Pisan, "Le Tresor de la cité des dames" (1497), Anna - Duchess of Bourbon and daughter of Luig XI - will print her "Enseignements" in 1521. Margherita of Navarra (1492-1549), sister of Francesco I and friend of Vittoria Colonna, will be the first French poet to be published. Daughter of Henry II and Catherine de 'Medici, another Margaret (1553-1615) - also Queen of Navarre - will inaugurate women's memorials to narrate the tormented vicissitudes of her life.
Was there, then, a Renaissance for women? The answers to this question, formulated for the first time in 1972 by the American scholar Joan Kelly-Gadol, were not unique. Fanny Cosandey observed that the Salic law, if it sacrificed the role of daughters, consolidated that of mothers as regents of minor children heirs to the throne (“Annales”, 1997). Margaret King has counted the Renaissance books that overflow with armed and pugnacious women, so much so that "two full-blown virgins - Jeanne d'Arc who commanded an army and Elizabeth Tudor who ruled a nation - aroused, like living Amazons, the same mixture of fear and admiration "(" Women in the Renaissance ", Laterza, 1991). In her essay, Casanova herself underlines how the Barbara of Brandenburg (1423-1481) placed at the center of the scene by Andrea Mantegna in the Camera degli Sposi of the Mantuan Castello di San Giorgio, signals an indisputable female patronage in the system of relations between the Gonzagas, the Roman Curia and the imperial court.
In short, Francesco Guicciardini's "History of Italy" does not seem to have had many admirers in the most recent historiography. In the work of the great Florentine, in fact, the presence of women on the political stage of the Renaissance is largely hidden or denigrated, in front of which he also professes himself to be a cold but curious spectator of the "variety of circumstances". A benign judgment reserves it only to Caterina Sforza, overwhelmed by Cesare Borgia in the siege of the fortress of Forlì (1499): "Being among the many defenders filled with a feminine soul she alone has a virile soul ... [Cesare Borgia] considering more in her the value that sex sent her to prison in Rome, where she was kept in Castel S. Angelo ”. Caterina Sforza herself reappears in a well-known passage from Machiavelli's "Discorsi sopra la prima deca di Tito Livio", in which the illegitimate daughter of Galeazzo, Duke of Milan, responds with a shameless gesture and with bold words to the relatives of Forlì, who threatened to kill her children if she did not surrender: "He showed them the genital limbs, saying that he still had a way to make them."
In conclusion, never before in the Europe of the sixteenth century have such a large number of women - daughters, sisters, wives, mothers, lovers - had access to high responsibilities or have governed in the first person. Making a complete list is not possible. Maria Tudor first (1553) and her sister Elizabeth then (1554) fully ascend the throne of England. Mary Stuart wears the crown of Scotland (1542). Margaret of Austria skillfully and prudently governed the Netherlands in revolt against Spanish domination (1559-1567). Renata di Valois (1510-1572) in Ferrara is the soul of a circle of intellectuals followers of the Calvinist verb. Jeanne d'Albret (1528-1572), queen of Navarre, dedicated herself to the defense of the Protestant cause and to the education of her young son, Henry of Bourbon, destined to reign over all of France.
Nor can we forget that for about thirty years it will be a queen, Caterina de 'Medici (1519-1589), who will protect her interests in one of the most tragic and bloody periods in its history. In a famous indictment, Jules Michelet will make her the incarnation of female duplicity and malice. In the "Comédie Humaine", Honoré de Balzac will instead exalt the policy of tolerance and reconciliation, which would have allowed the French monarchy to overcome one of its most difficult tests after eight wars of religion and the massacre of the Huguenots on the night of St. Bartholomew (23-24 August 1572).
This illustrious procession of ladies in power does not reveal a legal improvement in the condition of women. However, it shows that many of them have been able to assert their ambitions and their intelligence - and also their beauty - in spite of male prejudices. As Benedetta Craveri wrote in "Lovers and queens" (Adelphi, 2008), no matter how spectacular their successes are the sum of individual cases, they never merge into a single story. Because "History remains the official prerogative of men, and in order to fit into its gears without being crushed by it, you have to disguise yourself, play cunning, create powerful allies, distribute favors, seduce, bribe, punish - and know, at the right moment, to get out of scene".
Here in the evening
To all those who came here tonight thanks to the intended President Alberti Casellati we will present the book by Alessandra enemies an Italian conquest of France
Caterina de'Medici we will begin by listening to the words of the president, please reach the microphone
Good evening everyone
Dear guests authorities
Dear friends and dear friends
And for me it is a great pleasure to welcome you to the Senate today
Meet again to share the body the reflections aroused by the vehicle of the pages that Alessandra Necci dedicated to Caterina dei Medici
On the 500th anniversary of his birth
In my opinion, signaling an important and courageous stage in his career as a historian undertaken several years ago
Scelli heirs portraying Caterina dei Medici means first of all accepting to confront a central figure in European history
Of the sixteenth century with the load of transformations, contradictions, ferments, conflicts and gives me minds on the horizon that overwhelmed the men and women who in that complex and extraordinary era
They found themselves living
But it also means having to free oneself from that superstructure of opacity distortions that have so often accompanied the narration of the human and political story of the Queen of France.
In contemporary chronicles as well as in the biographical constructions made by posterity
The historical judgment on the reasons and objectives of his actions was strongly conditioned
To the detriment of the possibility of facing an overall interpretation of his personality which, although very much tested, certainly poorly understood
A part of the historiography has progressively freed itself
From this heavy baggage approaching Caterina dei Medici with a more short gaze there, a short joy away from simplifications and ideological concerns
Aimed at a correct historical analysis capable of recognizing its own limits and questions to be answered
Alessandra Necci recalls the stunted emancipation in several parts of her volume
Of the figure of Caterina de'Medici from the black legend that was built around her and offers in the pages of her passionate biography
An original contribution to the consolidation of this path
That the human and psychological dimension, the character, the dispositions of mind of individuals are essential keys
To understand the events to understand the present and past historical events
It extensively explores the personality of the Italian queen of France to give us a multifaceted and composite portrait
Curious, nourished by a solid humanistic education acquired at a very young age between Florence and Rome, where she also stayed in this same building then belonging to the Caterina dei Medici family, she was a patron of science and a lover of science.
Of the letters of the arts capable of drawing lymph from the culture of his homeland to contribute to cultural renewal
Of his adopted homeland
But she was also a woman of depth
Affectionate endowed with a strong maternal instinct, energetic, courageous, pragmatic, ductile
Above all, she is determined to affix her political intelligence with diplomacy and discretion to her spirit of observation in the service of heavy responsibilities.
That the government of the Kingdom of France in such difficult times required to support by embodying the best lesson Machiavelli Anna on the art of governing and preserving the state by exploiting her narrative skills and the ability to outline atmospheres to reconstruct wide-ranging scenarios to describe places and recalling situations situations characterized by a cost and a constant dialectic between individual events and complex historical dynamics
Alessandra Necci allows the human stature
And Caterina has the political stature of me of the doctors to emerge distinctly without for this disavowing weapons moments of weakness in moments of contradiction
The queen was not exempt from making mistakes in judgment or making controversial choices
The very hard choices Nepote invite that men and events precipitate I was lost in the conflicts that bloodied France in the second half of the sixteenth century
But there was no trace of personal speed in her
Ideological intolerance spiritual weakness national harmony internal and foreign peace the prestige and protection of a super partes royal authority
It was the goals and ideals that in every way he tried to pursue that survived the adverse conditions that imposed themselves on several occasions and that became solid foundations for the French monarchy and for the nation.
Now reconciled at the end of that difficult century, an end is high
Which France finally achieved, albeit at a severe price
To which the volume dedicated intense pages that become for Alessandra Necci also an opportunity to address a bitter thought to a fragmented and divided Renaissance Italy
In which the prevalence of particular interests did not allow the maturation of a project and a common identity
It is not the first time that Alessandra Necci has entered the difficult task
The psychological analysis of the characters and the exploration of their feelings leads us to reconsider
The nature and actions of figures obscured by part one reconstructions never understood by a hasty and simplistic historical critique
And to reflect on the frailties and weaknesses of our past
As on the contradictions of our present
He does it with a secular soul
Alien from prejudices respectful of distances but with a fluid and very personal engaging style
That respects the passion matured towards writing about history and the desire to share the smoke the fruit of his explorations
As it has often been recognized, her serious books documented without academic foreigners thus become a valuable tool for high-level dissemination of the stories they tell.
And above all they can be promoters of a more widespread awareness of the importance that historical knowledge animated by a critical spirit has for the construction of our memory.
Of our identity of our culture of our common life
it is an important task I would like to emphasize to which co-responsibility must be contributed
Working so that everyone can enrich their wealth of knowledge and values in the name of an open and inclusive vision of culture as a vehicle for growth for the individual and for the community
In these months
I have made this objective an important aspect of my mandate as President of the Senate, addressing the youngest with particular interest.Here we must offer opportunities to learn about opportunities to deepen and understand and develop the critical sense that will guide them in their life choices.
In different forms and ways, the institution that I preside intends to promote a quality cultural and scientific debate
With the unavoidable intention of making it a common heritage
The meeting that we welcome today, the exchange of ideas that will derive from it, is placed in the wake of this indispensable path, I am sure.
We salute the crash
Thanks then let's give the president a really big thank you to president Casellati for this
Well then let's start again
And I think yes it is interesting to understand
happened with these books that tell the story of yesterday with an eye to the events of today
Because of course we know how Croce defined history that the contemporary absence of history helps us to understand something of ourselves of our events and this book that abandoned the track followed so far to tell two symmetrical characters their similarity and Edolo contrasts
If the last the best known on the two sister-in-law Lucrezia turns
Isabella d'Este, choosing instead a character who fills the scene in the evening, fills in an impetuous way as was recalled at the dal by the President of the Senate
And it achieves the result of offering interpretations
High disclosure has been right said this is a high disclosure that simplifies without trivializing
And it helps to understand something of the world of yesterday to better understand the world of today
Perhaps no one like Caterina de'Medici represented the personification of Machiavelli's lesson in that at that historical moment
Perhaps no one like you first brought Italy the Italian product what we call made in Italy beyond our borders perhaps none like you have contributed to spreading
The great artistic and cultural part that was Lerna's challenge beyond its political contradictions which are also remembered in the books Alessandra Necci
Then we will now hear some passages a passage now by Maria Rosaria Omaggio which I thank for being here with us tonight and after that
Lavina Biagiotti Simonetta Matone and Claudio Strinati that I only present that their names because not the local one that with the role public roles that are well known will tell what they think of this free
And by choosing the keys that will naturally be personal, the word then to Maria Rosaria is a tribute for the first reading
My life has been a long, very long war marked by an alternation of infinite expectations crystallized in causes similar to glass bubbles and moments of sudden action in which the anxiety of providing for everything and at the same time parrying the blows
Clutched to the steel-topped cradle
Interspersed with some festive court parenthesis, however, aimed at a purpose, although a deceptive prestige consisting of the name, the titles, the riches and the privileges had aureolated permeated the appearance of things.
In practice, I have earned everything on the pitch
Struggling to conquer every single palm of land despite efforts and fatigue, nothing has consolidated to become stable and lasting.
I have never been able to take something for granted I have acquired when I thought I had reached a fixed point at a defined set-up I was pushed away made to slip forced tumbler pirouettes to recover balance
I started a thousand times from the beginning I climbed the slope leveraging the remaining energies I cling to every spike of rock
To avoid ending up in the abyss
Fault of fate and events of course
And you many of the people around me
Excessive resistance is needed
It would have been not only useless but deleterious
You can't or change
In the case of UA, perhaps so much bigger than us, I defended the positions as long as I could then I anticipated the events by overtaking cc
And I have become
Maybe I always have been
Ductile protean elusive imperfect please
Able to infiltrate me circumvent obstacles pass over like running water
It's the only way I know to survive
No need to draw up a list of those who were called friends allies relatives
And that they betrayed me
I do first to say
I don't know if after death we are in hell as they tell us, certainly there is an invitation and often it has the face of our neighbor
My fellow citizen Niccolò Machiavelli was right, even in France he enjoys a very bad reputation his reading his knowledge his vision of the world
They have been far more useful to me than the sermons of the sermons heard admitted
About men he wrote
It can be said that in general they are ungrateful changeable simulators and cowardly simulators in the face of Paganini's Apt dangers
As long as I would be useful to him, it will be all your people who will entrust their goods to their blood their life
This is as long as the need is away from you
But when it approaches
They will turn around
Anyone who tries to be good on every occasion
it is destined to ruin among the many who are not only good
Have you heard this wonderful reading of Maria Rosaria as a tribute to how the complexity of the character Caterina is returned from the first pages of the book
it is a research that is historically not a research of psychological excavation
There is an element of great modernity and how the figure of Catherine is described
And now I was saying before Catherine was also
One who changed customs in France
It brought many things that the French did not know
Here too, for example, he struggles
Also and then many recipes
Way of eating
That here we think it is a French cuisine today but at the time it was originally Italian and it was one of Caterina's merits
I would like to ask Lavinia Biagiotti if you share this idea of Bern's Caterina ambassador
We say of Italy in France not only for the political role it had but also for this aspect of its personality
Thanks then in the evening allow me to thank Alessandra very much who wanted me here tonight
Particularly moved by this meeting of ours because a friendship of a lifetime is really linked we were two little girls called perhaps something more important already since we were very young
And to be here today to witness to each other the path of a woman who somehow
Yes, it is imperative to identify with her, all young not so young was president Casellati
He says that this book should be divulged, I agree after reading it a couple of times because in the second reading he found some ideas that I had lost and therefore there are three suggestions to answer Fazio stimulus that I would like to extract so as not to steal time from the speakers who follow me are much more authoritative than me and also for this reason I am particularly excited therefore one and the identity then the beauty and the legacy that Caterina leaves the identity because it is difficult for a young woman not to identify with the words that exist just so good
Transmitted Mariarosaria in the fight in the famous crystal ceiling that so many of us
Five hundred years later we are still called to face in many roles in different places and worlds so I believe that the feeling of identity is one of the first that one feels when reading this novel and then I can almost say an osmosis between Alessandro and Caterina at some point. point in the prologue I did not understand more clearly who I can is valid for me by saying it at a certain point we speak of self-control iron will of steel Penasa inflexible rare ability of observation I find it difficult not to apply these four definitions so synthetic but so effective therefore
Alessandra comes to me more to talk about you strength than Di Caterina at least to get to frame what was her genius in fashion Alessandra always really showed since she was a child an out of the ordinary curiosity to be great without losing the imagination At bottom
The tenderness that binds her passes her father, she too the daughter of a Lorenzo whom I would like to remember here today I know that it is not easy for us who have lost our Beloved but certainly we will not be the same without them as well as Caterina who knew them little
Caterina knew them little Marina they were inside her when she says that she goes to meet death with serenity to then be able to meet her again SIT leaves herself a long beating in this sense
And therefore there is a beautiful family story that binds us to a story that has called us to adventure battles and satisfactions
it is an indissoluble bond with many friends that I see here greeting Gianni and Maddalena read who accompanied our lives as young women make older women university professor carries on the company founded by my grandmother fifty-five years ago
But in Rome with that spirit of Caterina an indomitable spirit at heart but also a certain joy here we are to the beauty that basically is here and there the answer
The director's question you say at a certain point I surrounded myself with beauty and beauties
Probably this beauty was certainly the desire to bring innovation, the desire to bring with it a corner of Italy that is a bit what fashion does my job too.
When you go around the world and see an Italian boutique Italian restaurant after all, you feel a bit at home no she does this five hundred years earlier evidently opens the way to Made in Italy you write at a certain point ambassador of made in Italy
Ante-litteram but perhaps it also does it to react to a certain ugliness not so much or not only that aesthetic that is often spoken of in your book but also in many biographies
But to the ugliness that life has put in front of it and therefore many of its innovations are also the result of a reaction, for example heels having sex, allow me to be a little light because then in the end of fashion it also brings with it this subtle son of lightness heels because she felt uncomfortable for her stature and therefore even for the wedding she asks a Florentine cobbler to add ten centimeters to her shoes strengths without Caterina we will not have the turkey and today Cassano is always a great invention for women like this as the corset did not have a wasp waist and therefore constrict
All the French nobility to huddle with these strings
Terrible, however, that the waistline was reduced by even ten fifteen centimeters to remain in our world much more fascinating what a reaction does with perfumes because alas they will not be costumes
So advanced almost contemporary as in Italy in France at that time and therefore she brings in the greatest Florentine perfumers
And he always wore this Commander this Dambra perfume around his neck which then becomes a master for the nobility but also almost a passepartout
Who opens the court that somehow connects people my mother Laura who has made a great career nor perfumes always said that perfume is the garment of the soul
Who knows that Caterina with the perfume did not want to dress or disguise her joys, her motions between feelings what she felt and if there is this great rivalry between Italian and French fashion on heels on accessories
On expulsive perfumes, who knows if she was not the first not only to export made in Italy and for this we are very grateful to her that I probably won't do what I do if Caterina wasn't there
But she was probably also the one who, always seen as the Italian at Fiorentina, a bit packages Tata a bit on demand, created this great rivalry that exists in the beauty between Italy and France and we talked about the fleets before. and it has been none other that the Mazzone is a reaction to his way of inventing the ride
No longer on an uncomfortable seat Alessandra describes it very well but in a more gritty way and then the women got up they had to cover I know it could not be shown and so the fleet arrives this was just to play a little game then of course the arts the music beauty but I am sure that Professor Strinati will be much more precise than me and therefore we come to the third suggestion the Catherine legacy today Caterina for young people
So certainly Alessandra represented a bridge, closing her novel thus a bridge towards the future
No a bridge made of courage of enthusiasm of creativity here too in my little one inherited from my mother the motto design the future fashion always looks two three four seasons beyond and therefore the feeling that we love to commit myself soul in my everyday work now I'm preparing a fashion show I'm on the run to Milan
Leaving the Senate tonight and trust, this is perhaps the background of Caterina, not if anything right but what inspires a feeling of trust in Mecca Terina because her desire to weave a plot
Between past, present and future is nothing more than trust in beauty trust in family trust in people thanks
Thanks to Lavinia Biagiotti for this intervention that has perfectly collected it seems to me some of the characteristics of this free even we don't even say them
Let's say immediate
Somehow Claudio Strinati has already been introduced precisely the words in mine I see that when he spoke of the complexity of the relationship between Catherine and beauty
And so I would like to ask Claudio Strinati
What a place European culture has for Catherine in history and what a place she also had in her studies
You are welcome
To this sorry but that evening dear friends I had a serious uncertainty about the functioning of the microphone
We say to the observation that Alessandra's book responds widely to Stefano Folli, that is, the cultural problematic we call artistic what Caterina brings to France
The book answers this question in a very articulate way, but it can be summarized in a Carcione point
What is called doctors then in reality Catherine
He comes from a family that on the one hand saw a bit of an evil eye at the court of France because he is not noble, doctors are merchants
They are the new rich so to speak here but not at the same time they are the custodians of the most immense
That Europe has perhaps ever Espresso
Alessandra libro remembers how Caterina was a very cultured person of her own
He spoke languages
In French, of course, which, however, according to four o'clock, Alessandra says she spoke very well but with an Italian accent, even in that world, a fairly significant fact that is, it never fully integrates.
It had its own important library
And he was a person this typical of doctors of humanistic and scientific training and at the same time
She was a literary woman so be it but she had a notable apparently at least she had a notable background in mathematics
He knew math
And he had books to that effect
At the same time, always talking about the beauty leather of this we are this concept so difficult but so widely developed by Libera Sandra
The beauty that this woman brings to the court of France and how to say altogether the huge Limentra of costumes
it was very worth mentioning how the
To the feeling when he goes to France of impacting his fundamentally rude world
The sensational innovations in history from the culture that Catherine brings to the court of France today make you smile
Alessandra Lolo tells in great detail and philological Subasio
For example, it is certainly demonstrated that the use and the towel at the table brought it by Caterina because before her we wanted to fly a money order.
Think of this highly cultivated fine woman as of the first Branzi
Of course, yes, cherry on the cake because they eat with their hands
Among other things, it is very interesting from the point of view of history and culture there are some very beautiful pages in this book and that Caterina as a great innovation of good taste
Bring an item that today
was overturned as a model of Bongusto there was sour sweet in the sense that when she arrived she ate the sweet salty
But I still actually impressive pairings and she first says no
Sweet sweet salted sardines and lunch gives you another way
Today they searched a little bit and today it is already old but in short, all this to say something perhaps a little deeper, that is the doctrine
That this woman conveys to France that she is fundamentally and Alessandra remembers it
Widely that of the Florentine Neoplatonism of Political Philosophy but of Machiavelli's Social Philosophy
This too is part of the concept of beauty and sacrosanct what you say in the book
And this is underlined from the first to the last page Status in the reading Maria Rosaria homage done you can feel very well that is how the whole story of this Italian woman in France and the remarkable subtitle an Italian conquering France is important for orienting the car
She succeeded in this conquering yes and no
But the sign that has been placed is very strong and Machiavellianism is part of this but the Machiavellianism that this woman not only teaches but standard bearer admits as truly
In my opinion Alessandra says it very well towards the end of the book when you noticed the book is composed in an interesting way that is on the one hand by an identification SM allowed this word of the author in the Caterina for which many passages are as if Caterina speaks a brooding if within himself his thoughts his reflections
Then this fits in with a narrative part but the narration of this book the narration not of historical novel but of
Historical evocation in the sense that
The narrative continuously interwoven with quotations from the texts of the period of the diaries all characters enter the scene with their own words but all these are Ritter on Ute from the thread of the harvest as she has always done
it is true it continues to do with results in our opinion commendable
And practically the final meditation is that in which Catherine pulling the strings of the terrifying things that ran to her think only the whole story of the night of San Bartolomeo one that is the most terrifying events in history
Of humanity I would venture to say that in the book she reconstructs in an interesting way, very very valid, in short, in essence and then
When the husband dies in that incredible tournament and a whole series of facts, Macchi Machiavellian meditation comes to an end.
That she has beaten herself all her life for the for the State because in reality then the great lesson in this woman is the yes the highest sense of the State but her mediation but the State does not actually exist the State
Reason of State will exist is that the State for which we must be ready to sacrifice ourselves and to mix in that way of apparently indistinct April which, however, is the substance of life.
Saving the raison d'état and therefore the state is the best way to do this, however it is possible to reach that dimension that is the most detested by our author.
And it says about grandma i in the final dedication of the book that struck me very much
What gratitude them
Because Alessandra supports the thesis that in life, for better or for worse, one must, that is, no, one must not, but it must be said that it is not always said that one must behave according to a rigorous application of the four cardinal virtues and the three titular virtues I say this but she says it. think intervened thought
But what is not admitted by our friend, scholar and writer
Let's say personalities attentive to Lecce in the world is ingratitude in fact the characters of his books starting I do not know if the first in short, the first important now and about ten years ago that on the son of Napoleon if he wants to be king of Rome
In the end Alessandra always investigates personalities that have come from a very great good and impact on the terrifying sea and suffer it and become victims but because they become victims they become so not so much for the evil of the world in a broad sense but because human ingratitude
And here the whole story of Caterina is woven
Of this oscillation between a profound rationalism and something typical of the Renaissance, a profound no irrationalism but a profound trust in all those things that lead us towards beauty that are mysterious
And the pages are to be read
Really notable on Nostradamus because one of the great protagonists this street level
Publish the centurions
In one thousand five hundred and fifty five where it foresees foreseeing everything
But it predicts death
In a terrifying way and then there will be the meeting which is perhaps the most beautiful passage in this book when Nostradamus makes the prophecy
It will be true it will not be true to Caterina Alessandra naturally reports it according to the philological one that relates the facts to us
With that minimum of skepticism from the historian who says but it will be true it could also be because Nostradamus predicts everything is not
He reads a mirror and inside the mirror you can see everything that will happen until the advent of Henry of Bourbon the end of the Valois
And then Catherine in fifty-nine
He sees everything
And he also sees the immense beauty of this destiny which, however, is destined to crash against a wall which, however, will not erase this message of cultural beauty, etc. but pushes it forward.
Another queen of doctors Maria will follow shortly
That somehow but this is another story as Rossella says Ò Hara so I do it
We will see if Nostradamus has also foreseen the next book by Alessandra Necci this on the ground so they produced we will know by re-reading the quatrains second reading of Maria Rosaria homage that we thank
Not to be overwhelmed
I immediately learned to be underestimated and to disguise it is better for me to be believed weaker, inexperienced and foolish than the one who is I put a mask on my face
I disguised what I was feeling, often trying to go unnoticed
To make myself invisible
I don't need to show intelligence or to show that I know that I notice and memorize everything
Much less to reveal goals and intentions
If I could it will burn and my bed caps every morning to mention the nocturnal thoughts to Mister X too
Why provide opponents with useful weapons to overwhelm
Why give them the keys that will be used to open us
I do not wish to be understood, interpreted, deciphered
So I try to make sure that nothing is read in my eyes that are two is cure bottomless stinks
A mirror that reflects their image to others and not mine
I intend to remain an enigma than to carry the secret with me
One of the important things in the power game
it is understanding who is in front of you in order to isolate the interlocutor in order to find his weak point
Not trusting the so-called friends, I approached the enemies by offering them the role they preferred in comedy
It is not difficult to circumvent people if you understand how to take them you have to say what they want to hear
Not what is true or down
Allies opponents friends runs are simple labels good words to deceive the naïve the antagonist of one day can become the accomplice of another and vice versa
I do not believe in the hard line Nenni are interested in the displays of strength I have tried to arrive at the results I had set for myself
Through dialogue, negotiation, understanding the balance of personal advantages
Everyone has a price you just have to understand which few are human beings who have a value
Sometimes it occurs to me that everything gets complicated
Thanks Maria Rosaria
Another brushstroke on such a complex personality
Of Caterina who wants to be an enigma
She even wanted to be underestimated and this then allows her to understand to understand to enter
In those paths
Che Strinati Calcinate at first well described as a passion for the state and attention above all to the reason of state and coconut
De I would like to involve Simonetta Matone precisely on this point
An evaluation and also political as well as human psychological on the character Catherine and on her relationship with the State
So but I will get there by making a premise then I have to really thank Alessandra not because my friend for many years but because years on the books this extraordinary ability unique for a historian to make himself heard the close character
I have read all of her books and I must say that they helped me a lot, they present the processes to the story she will cut and she was chosen because she did not paint them as she painted them
I refer for example to the son of Napoleon Rome in the biography I will tell you that you have dedicated Lea an evocative capacity to which when this poor wretched son of Napoleon Maria Luisa of Austria
The most unfortunate child
Of the story according to memories I started crying now I will be an idiot who cries for the death of Napoleon according to but I must say that this ability to Alessandra must be recognized and the tears of her being refer to Alessandra and Caterina de'Medici
Because I say this because she makes us feel like Caterina actually was, that is, an Italian woman
A woman who is not very noble because she comes from a family of first merchants then bankers then ennobled in but in short, today we would say nothing about the aristocracy's aristocracy
And this ugly woman
Ugly girl full of money
And not endowed with any charm, she arrives at the French court but her father-in-law understands it
The political genius and takes her under his protective wing and has not repudiated him despite ten years of sterility keep in mind that ten years of serenity
For the wife of an heir to the throne they are either something dramatic and these ten years of sterility will be followed by Lezzi bingeing on abominable concoctions does everything and more in the end she gets pregnant and bowl
Assists, however, undergoes some Orontes by this handsome pleasure-loving husband
Farfallone who starts who has a relationship with even a large neighborhood is a light-hearted woman esteem much greater than him even she hides to see what these two were doing in bed and she becomes pregnant because of Händel Poitier being a genius also this pushes the lover to mate with her because otherwise she would lose her power by not having children
So we are in my opinion to intelligence and genius
Absolute what is particular about Caterina compared to the others
For the first time in history, in my opinion, the relationship between the sovereign and the people is a sovereign accessible to all and a sovereign who works with the door to each other
Which is the signal that the great ones give when they arrive in an office of power and do not barricade themselves unlike the king of Spain
Who lives closed in the Escorial does not whistle not known by any certain point crosses France for a year and a half
To be seen
Well aware that the people need parties as well as gallows flours that never fail
The genius of organizing wonderful memorable parties open to all of whom we still talk about loves cooking brings Italian cuisine and a discoverer of artichokes
The supposed Lanyon of which the French make themselves so beautiful is an Italian Florentine stuff brought by Caterina dei Medici I'm sorry for Monsignor Brocardo who is French stable the fa so
Resigned with the head but it is the truth that is a whole series of wonderful things that we attribute the French are absolutely Italian and a person tolerant to her of the wars of religion does not give a damn suffers them
She undergoes the night of San Bartolomeo which unfortunately gets out of hand even to those who organize it because when the plebs
And then unleashed we govern it most I am sorry to say things so undemocratic but reading the story of the night of San Paolo Bartolomeo this is, let's say, the gist that
It draws from it
A wonderful relationship with sons typical of the Italian woman I really recognized
The Italian mother in the relationship she has with the males
Which places on the right and missing on various thrones at one point there was one that did not know where to place and decides from there to place it in Poland and this one in Poland does not want to go it takes a lifetime to get to and stops in Venice
To crazy Jars
She sends him the money not to fight him but in the end he must become king of Poland that other wants him to become of Portugal boasting ancient obscure ancestry
On two and this Margot is delightful because it makes Perbellini highly intelligent esteem highly educated Elena saddled with a kind of monstrous man right
And above all very dirty this was all washed perfumed etc. and is forced to accompany this man who smells of garlic because he eats quantities of garlic
Huge according to some historians to escape the evil power of the mother-in-law that is he is convinced that she makes him spells and hexes so he eats the garlic against the mother-in-law by moving away
The relationship wife between these two is really hilarious because because Catherine also suffered the shame of a child daughter now I don't remember that of Lady Fleming was male and female
Here then at a certain point the husband leaves colossal of English females very dense beautiful and with the boy as was the custom at the time they take the boy and drive out the mother this was done the papal court was done
Wherever the there, the one who did not wash himself or his son
But instead of taking an attitude like saying submissive, he insults his wife, he attacks her very violently and she writes a letter in my opinion that is a masterpiece
Dedicated to what a marriage should be like with that much hypocrisy but with a lot of tolerance she says but how I got the Fleming's all present with these little girls everything
And raise the crest, this is not how you behave in marriage when you read the book you will arrive at this page and make my own considerations uncertain does not save Mary Stuart but Mary Stuart poor also at the mercy of that cousin podium of that terrible cousin Elizabeth does not save her
Let's say nobody in Europe so it is not that she, I mean, aggravates the situation
Of the poor thing then at the end of this book
You all leave him with an almost con with regret because he is truly a very modern character
Very clever genius who gets inside you and above all is Italian
Here in the words of Simonetta Matone I believe that we have grasped another of the little secrets of the success of Alessandra Necci books of these in particular and that the ability to mix the upper and lower floors
The upper floors are
The character his relationship with the state with the raison d'état as beauty was said before
And the lower floors are also this anecdotal
Which surely has given us back with his intervention
And that make the free particularly brilliant a biography must be brilliant to be able to involve voters brilliant but not trivial certainly this is not a trivial book
I ask Mario from the major ones to give us the latest reading
Now I can no longer do anything
I know the glorious house of Valois will end
That there won't be another monarch of this noble lineage
I had put up a thousand strategies to avoid it
It wasn't enough
I am resigned
The other necromancy the black Urso scene mirror were right
One cannot escape one's fact
The fact that it failed doesn't make my project any less important, maybe it was just premature
I have sown
Someone will collect
The snow whirls about what lies outside the windows of this gloomy castle in Blois
The year is about to end is connected my own life is coming to an end
Now that I see the end the point of arrival
I feel a sense of relief
I have fulfilled my earthly duty I can let go of the grip that I have gotten so firmly on for decades on people and things
Air shift take possession of myself
And the certainty of having done what I had to and could I look at death not with fear but with curiosity
It will be a way to receive peace relief
Refreshment after so much fighting Patti
The father of the oppressed mentioned in the Crescenzi psalm years ago
Sangalli to console
Or maybe it will allow me to re-embrace those I loved on this one
Dialogue often with them ideally
And I find them real
How much me
It could also be that it is a departure, a new journey, a form of advancing towards a crossroads of worlds that are hidden from our dividing eyes.
it is a course
Thank you very much thank you to Maria Rosaria tribute for the emotion she gave us with these readings before giving the floor to Alessandra to conclude this mass evening or remembering that the book is dedicated to two Lorenzis
Lorenzo dad Lorenzo Necci
Son of Alessandra homonymous of his grandfather and a third person is also dedicated that Cesare De Michelis publisher says his son Luca greet you
Great friend asked Randy about Alexander for many years
And this is also an element that I think it is right to emphasize please
Thanks Stefano Folli wants to be all of me thank you very much for being here not only those in this room but in the other room and I thank you for your patience really like true friends because we had said that we were many
And of course we all had to go in. First of all I wanted to thank the President of the Senate
Elisabetta Casellati the whole Senate and I greet the general secretary Elisabetta Serafin
All dear friends who sit here
Da da Anna Finocchiaro has in Fausto Bertinotti to Gianni and Maddalena read many others forgive me I do not mention the names because you are with me the pieces of the puzzle of my existence so each of you has a piece of a part of my story
Naturally Stefano Folli Simonetta Matone Lavinia Biagiotti Claudio Strinati and Maria Rosaria a tribute that, as always, gratifies us with this wonderful reading
And I repeat again thanks to the Senate of the Republic where we are happy to be here tonight
A special ideal thanks to my editor Cesare De Michelis and his son Luca who is here tonight and whom I greet with great affection
But you see Caterina de'Medici was a character Luca De Michelis knows about whom I had great perplexities at first
And this very enigmatic figure of his
And after all, with some relevant shadow aspects it is said that one cannot write biographies of characters
That you don't like them instead I say that you cannot write biographies of characters with whom you do not identify yourself
Because in the end you know that many of you have followed with great affection other presentations each of the characters to whom he lends his voice from a piece of himself to the author who writes about it
So I'm a piece of all the characters I've written about and I hope I've given voice back in the best way to make them still alive.
Then you see there is another very important aspect in my opinion
I like you know it very well to go and look in the folds of history for the characters who have been expelled with violence the characters Claudio Strinati said very well that they have been betrayed
Characters who have a dark reputation
Because sometimes the truth is not what it seems
We have learned all the numbers for easy and very difficult experiences, I know that things are never what they seem and that the truth was said by Napoleon the historical truth is a conventional fairy tale nothing more nothing less
So let's go back
Give Caterina to this Florentine girl who apparently received all the gifts in her cradle from the good fairies and in substance instead had nothing but Doni has had an infinity of pains of problems is an interesting existence
Born in Florence
Precisely daughter of the doctors and she comes immediately she is immediately orphaned she is taken hostage by the enemies of the doctors closed in a convent and threatened to be killed or worse closed in a brothel she is only eight years old
Then it is thrown on the marriage market as was the custom at the time not only at that time
At the Pope, his uncle arrives in France at the age of fifteen and trumpet
The husband of which she is already in love just crazy for love of blondes Poitier that we do not forget CIA twenty years older than her so you imagine this figure that has always been painted as a black figure
Even the poisoned one says
You imagine dark lady of the sixteenth century B you imagine anyone of us who arrives at the court of France fourteen fifteen years all of us women the ladies present and that in order to survive she must disguise herself as a chameleon to adapt the figure of Caterina de'Medici to adaptability
Which is not the only fiction as it has been accused but intelligence and the ability to remain at a high level
Which in my opinion is the figure of the great characters the great characters never need to go down even if the circumstances become unpleasant the great characters stay high
Do you think that when you move Henry her husband in the famous tournament after the peace of Cateau-Cambrésis we are in one thousand five hundred and fifty-nine
Catherine chasing from da da paris da la la terrible blond and badly Poitier leaves all the gifts she was little she had done except the castle says not only
And you know what it says
Says I can't forget we give
The Velis of Motion Orrico were waiting for them
She was the delights of my dear Enrico, that is, she treats her as if she were a geisha then you tell me especially the female audience of my many friends
If there is no finer in the world than sending a rival home
Then you see there are two aspects this book is a bit of an ideal continuation
By isabelle Lucrezia
We said it was said by President Casellati in his speech my analysis on Italy is a bitter analysis that certainly takes up the famous words of Dante Alighieri many centuries earlier in the fourteenth century ouch serva Italia
Because because the Italian Renaissance is great beauty alongside great cruelty
Perennial wars a country incapable of giving itself a Project
The greatest artists in the world live next to the beautiful court, we have Leonardo da Vinci Raphael and all the others and we have a perennial state of war
In which those who call foreigners to start what Machiavelli defines the horrendous wars of Italy are Italians a country in which what Guicciardini calls the particular always prevails over the general interest Lorenzo the Magnificent is one of the very few
Which tempts even if with difficulty in a way perhaps a little
Provisional to give a balance a pax fails to die too soon
Then tell me if this is not a constant in Italian history
We say that the military interventions to the occupations made with the Landsknechts and the sack of Rome today we say followed a type of financial economic intervention and occupation but the drama is the same having said that we have another extraordinary aspect that the political lesson that is Machiavelli and Guicciardini who are the great architects of modern political science
They are Italians but the happiness of the artistic and cultural lesson says it very well the great Eugenio Garella never corresponds to a national political economic project this is a constant then Caterina
In my opinion, Caterina manages to bring to synthesis not by chance in another country
So to one person the court the great beauty I will not go back all the speakers who have preceded me have spoken very well about it but from the other Caterina and the perfect and ideal daughter of Machiavelli
Because because he understands that since man is subject to the fact Machiavelli said that half of human existence depends on the will of destiny
But the other half depends on individual virtue, not a Catholic-style virtue. Catherine is very secular, in truth almost atheist
But a virtue that refers to the virtus of ancient Rome
For forty years Caterina de'Medici brings these two lessons the France of Grossi here is the France of Richelieu of Mazzarino vinicola fu che and of Luigi fourteen
he is the heir to the labors of Catherine
Of this perfect ability to integrate between a part that is beauty and a part that is politics
So in this sense I found it interesting not only to dedicate my previous book as you know Isabella d'Este Lucrezia Borgia and examine Italy but to tell and I hope to have succeeded a Caterina who is not only the dark the dark lady is not alone not even that wonderful thing that the vineyard told while made in Italy is politics the politics in which the reason of state said Claudio
It prevails because Ethics and politics are only two distinct things
Having said that, I am going to conclude, however, I think that an Italian queen who has exported all the greatness of Italy, making the most of our artists
What Simonetta Matone said was the genius of doing two and a half years of Tour of France with the child king and the whole court you imagine in the mid-sixteenth century
A transhumance of thousands of people that crosses all of France because because the king must be seen by his subjects, Simonetta said that power must be accessible
So lookout to conclude I think that the figure of this woman who then I must say is not far from that of Isabella d'Este who not by chance had prepared her wedding trousseau
And that of all the great male or female politicians, men or women
And in the flexibility in the ability to always be in the balance between virtue and luck in the ability to take responsibility for even unpopular choices
But above all to use culture as an intangible infrastructure
Many of you have heard me, however, always have reasons Lare often of tangible and intangible infrastructures after all, at least listening to it from my father I learned a lot also on these issues
But while the material infrastructures have and are very clear the roads, the highways, the ports and today the high speed that obviously was not there before, the intangible infrastructures are the necessary glue of civilizations
Caterina takes advantage of Italian culture and takes her to France she manages to permeate herself
All the French fabric Forge the France of the future she and Francesco first of course the other great actor who remembered Simonetta seems to me to be the protagonists of this extraordinary century
The five hundred is the century of change very similar to the century we are living in
Dramatic with tremendous events the Massacre of San Bartolomeo massacre dead dramas of all kinds
But at the same time the sixteenth century and the century of the great geographical discoveries that began at the end of the fifteenth century
it is the century of scientific innovations in which ships become more modern in which science however begins to advance the kitchen changes completely
We live in a similar time
Great change, great modernity and also a great lack of reference points we do not have the massacre of the Huguenots but in any case we live in a state of concern of complexity
After all, if you think about it, the theory of chaos has won over any Enlightenment idea of equilibrium, I believe that Caterina understood it very well
In conclusion you know that I love very much many of you know that I love very much
Memoirs of Adriano by Marguerite Yourcenar and there is a beautiful phrase that I quote that I quote quite often
And in which Adriano says I have built many libraries here we are in a stupendous exhibition of books in many libraries that are Granaries for a winter of the spirit that I see coming from many clues in spite of myself.
Here it is
I sincerely believe that we too are experiencing a winter of the spirit and I believe that I truly am now as never before
Deeply grateful for your presence this evening and especially for the friendship with some of a lifetime, I believe that in a phase like this the powerful glue of the culture of solidarity
Constant presence is one of the antidotes
Claudio Strinati cited the barbarism of difficult times
The fact that Catherine imbued with Neoplatonism Erasmus of Rotterdam said that culture is the only possible bulwark against barbarism
And I sincerely believe that never as in this phase there was a need there was always a need for it
It was always Adriano who said
I wanted the power I wanted it to enforce peace I wanted it to carry out my plans I wanted it to be entirely me often before I die
Here I think the possibility of being entirely oneself at every level
It is up to everyone and that the ability to use culture as a tool is
What really makes a difference thanks
Thanks good health anyone
I challenge anyone to guess what I think
When you hear from lifelong friends who pour out hypocritical promises of friendship and brotherhood in front of me that they are the first to believe no
In many years or carefully planned every move and have set out to win in the long run or masked the fatigue, pain and anguish
In order not to make it clear which was in the points where the knife would have penetrated with greater ease
To get to power and stay there
Feelings and emotions need to be concealed
Through thought and reasoning