Beans are considered an unpretentious plant. On the one hand, one can agree with this - the culture is not very capricious. But, on the other hand, there are a number of rules, non-observance of which can adversely affect the harvest. When growing beans, success largely depends on proper planting.
Seedling beans are grown mainly in northern latitudes in order to extend the harvest period in short summer conditions. In central Russia and southern latitudes, there is no special need to grow bean seedlings, they can be sown directly into open ground.
Bean seedlings do not tolerate root damage during transplanting, therefore it is not recommended to grow them in boxes or pallets, it is better to use separate containers. These can be plastic cups, but you need to very carefully remove the seedlings from them. Peat pots or paper cups are ideal. In this case, when the plants are planted in a permanent place, the root system will be completely preserved.
If you grow bean seedlings in peat pots, the root system will not be damaged during plant transplantation.
The main requirement for soil for growing bean seedlings is high absorbency, air permeability and loose structure. One of the following soil compositions can be recommended:
To the last two mixtures you need to add about 10% sand and a little ash.
To increase the germination capacity of beans and to disinfect it, it is necessary to carry out pre-sowing seed treatment. It is as follows:
When sizing seeds, full-fledged and high-quality seeds are selected, unsuitable for planting are rejected
For disinfection, beans are placed in a manganese solution for 20 minutes.
To accelerate germination, bean seeds are soaked in a container with a wide bottom using a damp cloth
Seedlings develop within three to four weeks. The time of transplanting it into open ground depends on the climatic conditions of the growing region. In the middle latitudes, seedlings are planted on the garden bed in the last decade of May, respectively, it is necessary to sow beans in containers at the end of April or in the first days of May.
Before sowing, the soil is moderately moistened. The seeds are deepened by 3-4 cm. If there is any doubt about germination, you can plant two seeds each, and then choose a stronger plant from them. But, as a rule, beans germinate well.
The containers with the planted seeds are covered with foil and kept at a temperature of + 23 ° C until germination appears. It is important to avoid the formation of a soil crust, as this will inhibit seed germination. The tender sprouts may even break as they break through the crust. Usually shoots appear in 4–5 days.
Before the emergence of seedlings, containers with seedlings are covered with a film
After the seeds sprout, the temperature of +16 ° C is maintained throughout the entire growing period of the seedlings. The temperature should not be allowed to drop, as the seedlings may stop growing or even die.
Beans are demanding on light, so the seedlings need to be provided with a sunny place. Seedlings are watered moderately and keep the soil loose. Plants are hardened in the open air 5–7 days before planting the seedlings in a permanent place. Seedlings are ready for planting in the ground when three or four true leaves appear.
When 3-4 real leaves appear on the seedlings, it is ready for planting in open ground
When preparing the soil after deep digging, organic and mineral fertilizers are introduced into it (per 1 m2):
After fertilization, they are mixed with the soil by shallow (10–12 cm) digging.
Plants are watered abundantly on the day of planting. They make depressions in the soil the size of the cups and also moisturize well. Seedlings are carefully removed from plastic cups, trying not to damage the clod of earth, and placed in a hole 1–2 cm deeper than the seedlings grew in the container. Peat or paper cups are dipped into the hole along with the seedlings. Sprinkle the soil so that there are no voids, water and mulch. If the threat of a drop in temperature persists, the plants are protected at night with a covering material.
For climbing varieties, supports are installed before planting. You can plant plants near the capital buildings available on the territory of the site.
Beans are heat demanding, active growth occurs at an air temperature of 20-25°C. Seedlings can die at temperatures as low as -1 ° C.
In the southern regions, beans are sown in open ground at the end of April. In the middle latitudes - after May 20, and in the northern regions they are waiting for the risk of night frosts to disappear, as a rule, this happens in early June. Usually, the sowing dates for beans and cucumbers are the same. If, nevertheless, there is a risk of lowering the temperature below zero, the seedlings are covered with a film at night.
The place for the beans is chosen well-lit and protected from the cold wind. Fertile soil with a light structure is most suitable for legumes. On heavy clay soils, especially if the groundwater is high, beans simply will not grow. On cold, high groundwater soils, beans are grown in high ridges.
The place for planting beans should be sunny and well warmed up.
Organic fertilizers are best applied when growing bean precursors. If the soil was well filled with organic matter, then it is enough to apply only phosphorus and potassium fertilizers. From nitrogen fertilizers, the green mass will grow intensively to the detriment of the harvest, so they are not added.
On poor soils in the fall, they are applied at the rate of 1 m2:
The beans do not tolerate the increased acidity of the soil; the soil with a neutral or slightly acidic reaction (pH 6-7) will be optimal. If the acidity is above the norm, liming is necessary.
Bean seeds begin to germinate when the soil warms up to a temperature of at least 10–12 ° C at a depth of 10 cm.
Before planting seeds in open ground, they are treated in the same way as when sowing them for seedlings: they are calibrated, disinfected and soaked. Processed beans for the prevention of damage to seedlings by the root weevil immediately before planting are recommended to be dipped in a warm solution of the following composition for several minutes:
Before planting beans in open ground, carry out the same measures for their pre-sowing treatment, as when planting seedlings: calibration, disinfection, soaking
When sowing curly beans, support for the plants is immediately provided. A support can be capital structures on the site, such as a fence, a wall of a house or a barn, a gazebo, and so on.
If you plan to plant a separate bed, then equip a special trellis. For this, two supports 1.5–2 m high are installed along the edges of the bed and a wire or twine is pulled between them. You can plant beans on each side of the trellis. The row spacing for curly beans is marked at least 50 cm, in a row the plants are planted at a distance of 20-25 cm.
To grow curly beans, a trellis is installed in the form of supports, between which a wire or twine is stretched
Climbing beans can also be grown in the nesting method. With this planting option, a wooden stake is installed, on which the beans will easily catch on, and five plants are planted around it.
If you attach ropes to the top of the hammered stake and fix them on the ground in a circle, the bean shoots will braid the structure and you will get a hut in which children can play. The second version of the hut is a pyramidal support made of rods stuck into the ground along the perimeter of the circle and connected by wire from above.
It is possible to construct a pyramidal bean support in the form of a hut
Bush beans are planted at a distance of 15–20 cm with a row spacing of 40 cm. You can use a row planting or arrange the plants in a checkerboard pattern, but in any case it is undesirable to plant more than four rows in one bed. Bush beans are convenient for growing because they do not require support.
Before planting, the beds are marked out depending on the type of beans. Climbing beans need a little more room for full development than bush beans. She often has higher yields.
On loamy soils, the sowing depth is 4–5 cm, on light soils - one centimeter deeper. The beds with the planted seeds must be watered, the soil should be compacted with the back of the rake and slightly mulched with humus or just dry soil.
Seedlings appear in 5-7 days. To protect them from cold weather, they are covered at night. The sprouted seedlings are spud to give them greater stability.
When sowing beans, you can use two methods: ordinary and tape. They are both widespread and successfully used by gardeners.
It is considered the simplest and most common way of planting beans, in which the plants are arranged in one row (line) at a short distance from each other with wide aisles. For beans, the average row spacing is 50 cm and the row spacing is 25 cm. Routine sowing results in a larger feeding area than belt sowing. However, planting density decreases, so this method is best used when there is enough space for the beds.
With an ordinary sowing method, seeds are planted at a short distance in a row and leave wide aisles
With tape (multi-line) sowing, two or three rows (lines) come closer together and form a tape. According to the number of rows in the tape, crops are called two- or three-line. The distance between the plants in the row remains the same as in the row sowing, and the row spacing between the belts is increased to 60–70 cm. The distance between the lines in the ribbon is 25 cm. Band sowing allows for more economical use of soil moisture and nutrients, as well as successfully control weeds.
With the belt method, two or three rows come together and form ribbons, between which wide aisles are marked
The mung bean crop is native to India and is widespread in the subtropical zone. It has long beans that taste like beans with a slight nutty flavor. Since mung bean is a southern plant, it needs an air temperature of at least 30–35 ° C throughout the season. Existing cold-resistant varieties also grow in cooler climates, but the yield of the crop in this case is somewhat reduced.
Mung bean is a southern plant, it needs an air temperature of 30–35 ° C for full development.
The place is chosen sunny, well warmed up, as for ordinary beans. The soil should be very light, loose, air and water permeable with a neutral reaction. In the fall, preparation consists in distributing wood ash over the site and watering. In the spring, just before sowing, the soil is dug up and very carefully harrowed.
The ideal option would be to cultivate the land with a walk-behind tractor, which makes it loose, like fluff.
Sow mung bean in soil warmed up to at least 15 ° C. The row spacing can be from 45 to 70 cm, the distance between plants in a row is 20–40 cm. It should be taken into account that mung bean is a rather spreading plant, its tall varieties require a garter.
Seeds are planted to a depth of 3-4 cm. Mung bean is picky about soil and air moisture, especially during the period of seed germination. Therefore, crops are watered abundantly and the soil is kept moist, but without stagnant water. Seeds germinate slowly, shoots appear in 10-12 days.
There are quite a few plants with which you can plant beans next to them. She is friendly with radishes, corn, celery, cucumbers, potatoes, tomatoes, beets, spinach and all types of cabbage. In the vicinity of these cultures, mutual stimulation is noted. And also good compatibility is observed with carrots, radishes, cucumbers, pumpkin, lettuce and strawberries.
Beans get along well with many cultures.
There are significantly fewer crops, the neighborhood with which is undesirable for beans. Planting beans next to onions, garlic, fennel and peas is not recommended.
Compliance with the rules of crop rotation is important for growing any crop, including beans. It is recommended to plant it after cucumbers, tomatoes, potatoes, cabbage, carrots, strawberries, beets, radishes, corn, hot and sweet peppers.
There are much fewer bad predecessors for this culture. They will be peas, beans, lentils, soybeans, peanuts. Also, beans cannot be re-grown in one place for 3-4 years.
The process of planting beans is simple, it will be understandable and accessible even to a novice gardener. And even experienced ones know even more that it is very important to take into account all the conditions and rules when planting a crop - this is the key to the full development and productivity of plants. It is not difficult to fulfill the requirements, and the beans will delight the eye with their decorative bushes and will thank you with a good harvest.
I have several professions of different profiles, including a musician and an accountant. Higher education.
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It is believed that planting beans is a simple matter. Indeed, you can just throw the seeds in the garden and forget about them. Stunted lashes with a pair of limp pods will grow.If you want to have delicious fruits from your own garden on the table, pay attention to the plant, provide such care that this species requires. In areas with short summers, find out how long after planting the crop will ripen and see if this variety is right for you.
Narcissus (Narcissus) comes from the Amaryllis family, includes several dozen species. It is a very popular bulbous plant that blooms in spring. In their natural state, daffodils grow on the Iberian Peninsula, in the Mediterranean, Asia.
Due to its decorative effect and relative ease of cultivation, the flower spread to North America. Today its largest producers are Sicily, Great Britain, and the Netherlands.
The name comes from the Greek language and means "stubbornness and indifference." Historians believe that the origin of the name of these flowers is due to their strong intoxicating smell and the poisonous power of the bulbs.
The decoration of the plant is unusual spring flowers, which are among the first to appear in gardens right after winter.
Flowering usually begins in the second year after planting.
Daffodil blooms - April, May.
Beans are a thermophilic culture, so planting is best done in spring. in the second half of Maywhen the threat of frost has passed. Young shoots are afraid even of cold winds, which is why many gardeners find its place under apple trees or along the fence.
The minimum temperature that bean sprouts can withstand does not exceed the mark -3-4 degrees... If the frosts were short-lived, the beans will survive, but their development will be slowed down and yields will decrease.
Agrotextile or film, which are used for construction, will help to change the situation. temporary shelter.
An early harvest of green beans can be obtained by planting the crop not in open ground, but in a greenhouse. With this planting, preference should be given to early varieties. The plant can be planted in a separate area or along the edge of the ridges. In order to avoid shading of the main crops with curly beans, not more than one bean plant is planted per sq. meter.
If for some reason in the greenhouse it was necessary to remove already grown tomato or pepper seedlings, then a bean seed can be planted in the vacant hole. It will quickly overtake the main plantings and have time to bear fruit. The soil in the greenhouse is usually well fertilized, so the beans will branch a lot. In this case, it is recommended to remove lateral shoots to a height of 70–80 cm, and pinch the next ones at the height of the first inflorescence. Free air circulation must be ensured between the plants.
For planting in an apartment or on a balcony, it is better to choose bush varieties of beans, since there is no need for large containers to grow them. For planting, special vegetable containers, large flower pots are suitable. The soil should be used fertile, loose. Its composition can be as follows: 2 parts of the earth and 1 part of humus.
Ordinary flower pots can be used to grow asparagus beans on the windowsill.
The planting process does not differ from planting a crop in open ground. When leaving, you should pay attention to the following points:
Even bush bean varieties need a little support.
Curly bean varieties also thrive on balconies. They can provide a good harvest of wholesome beans, decorate balconies and provide cool shade on hot summer days. It should be borne in mind that for growth they need a container with a volume of at least 3 liters and a reliable support.
When growing asparagus beans, you will receive several benefits: you will get an excellent harvest, diversify your diet with healthy and tasty fruits, improve the composition of the soil and decorate your site with almost no cost.
My name is Ludmila. Higher education, graduated from the Minsk Institute of Culture. I live in Belarus. Rate the article: