Many gardeners and summer residents grow currants on their site. But, so that a good harvest will please for many years, it takes a lot of effort.
All varieties of currants are susceptible to various diseases. There are over 70 species of insects that harm shrubs. By their activity, they lead to a decrease in yield and complete death of the plant.
In order to save the plantations of currants from diseases and pests in time, you need to know their symptoms and methods of neutralization.
Powdery mildew is caused by the marsupial mushroom Erysiphales... With an ailment, a white loose coating forms on the surface of young leaves and berries. Powdery mildew is not common.
When symptoms appear, it is recommended spray shrubs with "Fitosporin" or a solution of pharmaceutical iodine... If this treatment is not effective, you should apply 1% copper sulfate.
Timely treatment measures taken allow you to quickly defeat the disease. In any case, the presence of an ailment indicates a deterioration in the condition of the currant bush.
The main effective preventive measures are proper grooming and regular feeding.
Anthracnose - a fungal disease currant bush. A humid climate is favorable for the development of the disease. Green young shoots are the place of life of the fungus.
At the initial stage of anthracnose, small dark spots appear. They gradually increase with the progression of the disease.
The spots deform the leaves and fruits, and also have a negative effect on the entire bush. Anthracnose causes premature fall of foliage and a decrease in the winter hardiness of the bush.
To destroy the anthracnose pathogen, fungicides are used in accordance with the instructions. The most famous drugs to treat the bush are: Fitosporin, Previkur, Acrobat, Ridomil.
Fungal spores overwinter on fallen leaves. For prevention, it is necessary to destroy the infected foliage in time.
The main causative agent of currant terry is considered kidney mite... Terry currant is characterized by the ugly state of the outer leaves. With the progression of the disease, the flower brush becomes thinner, and the scales replace flowers.
There is a strong elongation of the leaves of young shoots. From five-leafed they turn into three-leafed ones. The veins get coarser. The color of the foliage becomes dark green. The spicy aroma characteristic of currants disappears.
How to fight? Spraying the plant 1% suspension of colloidal sulfur or lime-sulfur broth.
Processing is carried out during the period when the tick leaves old buds. After 10 days, re-processing is carried out.
If the damage is severe, two more sprays are required (upon completion of flowering and berry picking).
White spot or septoria causes the fungus Septoria sibirica... This ailment is one of the most common.
Septoria is characterized by the appearance of small brown spots on the surface of the leaves. In the future, they acquire a white color, but the brown edging remains. The spots can spread to the berries.
A harmful fungus transfers winter on fallen leaves. Spores move to the surface during swelling from moisture (in wet weather or from excessive watering). Leaf infection occurs from the underside.
Harm from white spot:
For the treatment of currant plantations and soil carry out treatment with "Nitroferon" or copper sulfate in the form of a solution... The event must be carried out in the spring before bud break.
In the summer, a four-stage processing is allowed. 1% solution of Bordeaux liquid or copper oxychloride.
For prevention it is necessary monitor soil moisture, timely destroy fallen leaves, row currant plantations, process and dig up the soil in the autumn and early spring period.
There are two types of currant rust: columnar and goblet.
Columnar rust is caused by the mushroom Cronartium ribicola Dietr... The pathogenic microorganism negatively affects the foliage.
On the underside of the leaves, orange growths develop, which, when powdered, form many bright spores. Yellow spots appear on the upper side of the leaf.
Columnar rust appears on currant bushes in early August and spreads rapidly. The disease causes massive leaf fall prematurely and reduces yields.
Also, with columnar rust, there is a decrease in the growth of young animals and a decrease in nutrient reserves.
Goblet rust is caused by the mushroom Puccinia ribesii caricis... With this disease, bright orange pads develop on foliage, flowers and ovaries.
Active infection occurs during the flowering stage. For this reason, flowers and ovaries are severely damaged.
The humid climate and the proximity to sedge have a beneficial effect on the harmful fungus. Goblet rust affects almost all foliage and flowers. This causes their premature fall and leads to a significant decrease in yield.
For both types of rust, currants can be treated in the same way. Fungicides "Topaz", "Previkur", "Fitosporin-M" suppress the development of the pathogen, do not allow spores to ripen and dissolve.
It is also allowed to spray the bushes with 1% Bordeaux liquid.
As a preventive measure the plant is transplanted to a hill, the soil is dried, and sedge thickets are removed.
Nectric drying of shoots causes the mushroom Nectria ribis... The disease is characterized by the formation of orange dots on the branches and shoots.
They gradually grow and transform into voluminous tubercles. At the stage of maturation of the spores, the tubercles turn black, and the young processes dry and die.
Lack of timely treatment leads to the death of the entire bush.
When the first signs appear, it is necessary to start a fight: to prune the infected branches and burn them. Sections are disinfected with Bordeaux mixture and processed with garden varnish.
For prevention you should regularly remove weeds, remove fallen leaves and apply top dressing.
Striped mosaic is a viral disease... The disease is characterized by the appearance of a pattern of bright yellow color on the leaves around the main veins after blooming.
There is no cure for striped mosaic: the infected bush should be removed.
Currant leaf gall midges are small brownish-yellow mosquitoes... Insects lay eggs on young leaves of growing shoots.
Non-expanded leaves are damaged by larvae. In the future, they disfigure and die. Shoots stop growing and start branching incorrectly.
To get rid of the pest, it is necessary to treat the plantations with insecticides in the spring during budding. If required, re-processing is carried out after the final collection of the berries.
Damaged shoots should be cut without hemp in summer or autumn (until mid-September). Be sure to dig up the soil in the autumn season.
Currant golds - greenish-copper beetles up to 9 mm long... Legless flattened larvae with a widened front end are yellowish-white in color. They prefer the core of the currant branch.
The top of the damaged shoot dries up, and then the entire shoot dies. As a result, the fruiting of the bush decreases.
To get rid of currant goldfish it is necessary carry out low pruning and burning of affected branches.
The spider mite is considered a small sucking pest. It lives on the underside of a leaf and weaves its webs around the surface.
The damage is characterized by the formation of a light point at the beginning of infection, then the complete discoloration of the area. Severely damaged sheets acquire a marbled appearance, dry up and fall off over time.
A currant affected by a tick becomes less hardy and gives a lower yield.
The active development of ticks occurs from July to August.
For spring treatment (during bud break) the bush is sprayed with acaricides. Sulfur preparations can cause leaf burns.
With a strong defeat re-spraying. Acaricide can be added to chlorophos solution and applied after flowering.
For prevention fallen leaves are destroyed, and the soil is dug up.
Currant glass - this is a 1.5 cm long butterfly... It is covered with black scales with a lilac tint. There are light transverse stripes on the belly of the glass.
Pest females are capable of laying up to 60 eggs in the cracks in the bark of branches. The white caterpillars that have appeared gnaw through the core of the branches and make walkways in them for wintering.
By the next fall, they reach a length of 2 cm, but do not go outside. They spend another winter inside the currant branches.
At the end of May, the larvae gnaw through the exit and pupate. Butterflies fly out in June. After the end of flowering, branches damaged by larvae wither and dry out.
For prevention regular inspections of plantings with signs of glass-pot are carried out. It is important to prune and destroy damaged branches on time.
Firefly is a small gray butterfly 1 cm long... Pupae of fireflies hibernate under plantings of currants. During flowering, butterflies lay eggs in the flowers. This leads to damage to the flower.
The presence of pests can be determined by the presence of hatched caterpillars on the bush and the fruit braided by cobwebs. Caterpillars feed on currant berries.
Affected shrubs cannot be cured. To prevent the death of a bush from a pest, it is necessary to cover the soil around the currant with roofing material or linoleum before flowering.
This cover will keep pests out of the soil. After flowering, the leaves can be removed.
Gooseberry moth - butterfly with wingscovered with black and yellow spots. She usually prefers gooseberries, but she also likes to eat currants. Eggs are laid on the back of the leaves.
The caterpillars that appear eat leaves from all sides. In the middle of summer, they turn into pupae and are hung on the branches.
For prophylaxis it is necessary:
Processing currants in autumn is carried out in order to get rid of various pests and diseases. Indeed, with the onset of spring, all microorganisms come to life and begin their vigorous activity.
In order to protect currants from pests and diseases, in the autumn period it is necessary to carry out a number of activities:
For preventive spraying experts recommend using chemical solutions, which contain medicines for pathogenic microorganisms and pests.
For the information of beginners in gardening: if you do not want to use chemical compounds, you can use natural ingredients - folk remedies (infusion of wormwood, garlic, onion husks, tobacco).
When spraying red and black currants it is necessary to adhere to the recommendations:
We fight diseases and pests of currants without chemicals:
Timely care for currant bushes, processing them from pests and diseases - the key to growing a healthy plant for many years and getting a good harvest.
Both diseases and pests pose a threat to currants.
This is not a complete list. It includes only the most common and dangerous diseases and pests. One more conclusion can be drawn, despite the close relationship, black and red currants can have "their own" diseases:
It is interesting to note that some diseases of black currant are similar to those from which grapes and gooseberries suffer. These are powdery mildew, terry, glass rust, septoria. The danger of black currants is represented by the same pests as gooseberries.
Red currant has a number of advantages over black currant, it is more productive and unpretentious, and its main advantage is that it is resistant to diseases. But, even this does not save her from many of them, including European powdery mildew.
The causative agent of such a disease of red currants as goblet rust - mushroom Puccinia ribesiicaricis f. ribis Kleb. The causative fungus hibernates on sedges; in spring, spores infect berry fields. In late May - early June, prominent bright yellow spots appear on the leaves and petioles on the upper side. On them, when a disease appears on the leaves of the currant, on the underside of the leaf blade, spores containing goblet-shaped etia are formed (hence the name of the disease).
The affected leaves and berries fall off by the middle of summer, so the signs of the disease disappear. The disease of berry plants with rust is facilitated by their placement in lowlands, where sedges grow, on which the infection persists. Goblet rust occurs constantly on currants.
Control measures. Compliance with the requirements of agricultural cultivation, timely mowing of sedges in low areas, collection of plant residues. Preventive spraying of bushes with 1% Bordeaux mixture or its substitutes during the leafing period, and with a strong manifestation of columnar rust, again, after picking berries, with the same preparations.
Look at the manifestation of this currant disease in the photo, which illustrates the typical symptoms:
The most popular variety of this culture is precisely the black one. Its berries have a strong taste and aroma, and are most often used in conservation. This species should be given special attention, since black currant diseases and the fight against them have their own characteristics and differences.
The causative agent of the disease is Ribes virus 1, and the carrier is a kidney mite. The virus leads to mutation of the original form of the species and the sterility of the plant.
Terry on currant ovaries
The main symptoms are:
You can detect such a disease already during the flowering period. Infected plants are a source of infection for healthy ones, so the former must be removed. Drug treatments or pruning will not be effective.
You can prevent terry in the following ways:
A change in the color of foliage on currant bushes can be a sign of various diseases, which will be discussed below.
Dots of yellow or yellow-brown color appear on the foliage, small pads appear on the back side, in which spores mature.
The most effective remedy against fungal disease of columnar rust is spraying the shoots before the start of sap flow with Bordeaux liquid (3% solution). During the season, it is recommended to treat with a 1% solution of this drug with an interval of 1-1.5 weeks (at least 4 times).
And on green foliage, the treatment of currants against columnar rust with any suitable fungicidal preparations (Fitosporin, Fitodoctor and other analogues) is effective.
This disease, unfortunately, cannot be treated. A pattern of light yellow stripes and specks appears on the leaf plates. Plants begin to weaken and yield drops sharply.
To avoid the spread of striped mosaic, it is necessary to completely uproot all diseased currant bushes and burn them. You should also deal with pests-carriers of this infection (ticks, aphids).
This disease is similar in symptoms to powdery mildew. To choose effective measures to combat scab, you need to clearly know its symptoms.
Scab affects all vegetative parts of the bushes - from stems to fruits. Specks of dark tones appear on them, covered with a bloom of green color. As a result of scab damage, the currant foliage begins to turn yellow, dries up and falls off, the fruits stop developing, become covered with specks and begin to crack, cracks appear on the bark of the stems, then the bark dies off.
Measures to combat currant scab:
The main symptom of a fungal disease of currant with septoria is the appearance of small specks of brown color with white blotches on the leaf plates, which later become lighter, but a brown border remains on them.
With white spot, the same brown-white dots appear on currant berries. The most effective preventive measure is the regular treatment of the vegetative mass of shrubs throughout the season with Bordeaux liquid. It is also used to combat septoria.
Fighting disease includes:
Rust - red bumps on the back of the leaves, which, when the disease spreads, merge into orange stripes. Fruits can also be affected. Excessive spring watering can provoke the disease. Rust pathogens live on conifers or on a marshy plant - sedge. If there is a swampy reservoir or coniferous plantings next to the garden plot, then it would be better to choose varieties that are resistant to rust damage for growing currants.
Diseases of red currants are not uncommon, despite the plant's increased immunity and its good resistance to many diseases. The article provides a description of various diseases of red currant, as well as a description of ways to control pests of this culture.
Red currant leaf disease can manifest itself in a wide variety of cases. Even proper care, which consists in the regularity of preventive measures, cannot always guarantee the health of your favorite berry.
Climatic conditions, features of the terrain and soil in which a plant grows can have the most detrimental effect on it. And it often happens like this: at first glance, it seems that there are no factors provoking the disease, however, if we consider them together, it turns out that the reason lies in several of them at once.
Most currant diseases are fungal or viral in nature. Bacterial lesions are rare, although they also occur. Many of them can be cured, however, there are a number of diseases, after the defeat of which the plant will have to not only be removed from the garden, but also to destroy all traces of its presence.
[su_box title = "Note" style = "glass" box_color = "# 4573D5 ″ radius =" 5 ″]
In order for the treatment of red currant diseases to be effective and successful, it is necessary to start it on time. For this, regular diagnostics of the state of green pets in the garden should be carried out. Daily examinations will help to quickly identify the source of infection and take adequate measures in time.
Important! In most cases, treatment is the relief of obvious manifestations of the disease and its further preventive support.
Consider the descriptions of red currant diseases using specific examples with photographs.
The symptoms of this disease are not immediately noticed, since everything happens on the lower part of the red currant leaves. It is not possible to detect the problem during a routine inspection.
The main manifestation of the disease is the appearance on the underside of the leaves of small (0.5-1.5 mm in diameter) growths of orange or red-yellow color, with small depressions. This is the culprit of the problem - a rust fungus, one of the most common Pucciniomycetes, a vast class of fungi that parasitize various types of living organisms.
As the disease spreads, the lower surface of the leaf is completely covered with the parasite, from where they move to neighboring leaves.
An interesting fact is that red currant is only a temporary host of the fungus. To continue its development, the fungus needs to spray the spores. This happens at the moment when the dying leaf falls from the bush. Further development of the rust fungus occurs on another host.
Goblet rust is a very unpleasant disease. It can lead to a loss of 50% to 70% of the crop. Most often, plants growing near natural reservoirs and in conditions of high humidity are susceptible to it.
The most common disease of all gooseberries is powdery mildew, often called spheroteca. Fortunately, it is red currant that has the highest resistance to this disease. And, nevertheless, cases of the disease are recorded, albeit infrequently.
The main risk group is young plants up to 3 years old. Symptoms of the disease are manifested in the coverage of the affected areas with a white bloom of a fairly hard consistency, turning brown and hardening even more over time.
With the further development of the disease, the leaves are deformed and the berries disappear. In addition, advanced cases of powdery mildew lead to a decrease in the immunity of the plant, it may die.
The main symptom of this red currant disease is red leaves. The causative agent is the ascomycete fungus.
Usually, red spots are just the beginning of the disease. They look like small (up to 3 mm) tubercles and are mainly located on the lower row of leaves.
Over time, their hue changes to orange. At the same time, partial lesions merge into large spots that occupy most of the leaf surface and are bordered with a purple border.
[su_box title = "Important" style = "glass" box_color = "# F63E62 ″ radius =" 5 ″]
With the further development of the disease, anthracnose covers not only the leaves, but also other parts of the plant. Almost all plants above the soil can be affected by fungus. Fruits that have gotten a fungal infection are also affected by ascomycetes and rot.
The disease is easily transmitted from affected plants to healthy ones through plant debris, fruits and seeds, as well as through the soil.
The prevalence of the disease has a fairly wide area. For example, the temperate climatic zone is practically all at risk. A favorable condition for the development of anthracnose is high humidity (up to 90%), moderate temperature (+ 20-22 ° C) and frequent precipitation, therefore, it is much less common in southern and arid regions.
Another name for the disease is reversion. Its causative agent is still unknown. It is assumed that such changes in the tissues of red currants are caused by a virus, although there is evidence that the disease can be attributed to fungal infections.
Despite the fact that black currants are more likely to be affected by this disease, about every tenth case of manifestation of reversion occurs in red.
There may be several sources of the spread of the disease:
The symptomatology of the disease is quite extraordinary. The appearance of the plant changes significantly, in particular, the leaves become three-lobed, the veins and denticles along the edges of the leaves become more textured. The size of the leaves also changes - they sometimes decrease by 1.5-2 times.
The flowers are significantly deformed - instead of them, growths of a purple hue are formed. The number of leaves increases, and deformed shoots appear. The bush may look uneven, skewed, asymmetrical. In general, in some cases one cannot even say whether it is a red currant or not.
It was noted that during dry periods, terry is practically not manifested. But in conditions of high humidity, it is observed quite often.
Another name for this disease is gray spot. The symptomatology of the disease is the appearance of a large number of red-brown spots on currant leaves. As the disease progresses, the affected area increases in size and takes on the shape of a circle. The border of the spot has an interesting feature: the spots on it have a distinct white color in the central part.
Over time, there is a complete fall of foliage from the plant, even those leaves on which the lesion was not observed visually. It is believed that there are no varieties of red currants that are immune to septoria, although, as in the case of other diseases, it is more often not red currants that are affected, but black currants.
In addition to leaf diseases, red currants are rarely exposed to bark diseases. Consider diseases of the bark of red currant with photographs.
With this disease, there is a sudden wilting of a part of the branch located above the lesion. The leaves naturally wither along with the branch. At the same time, the core of the shoot remains unchanged and does not even change its color in any way. The cause of this disease is a fungus that lives in the bark. It may not manifest itself for several years, but with the appearance of normal conditions, it is activated.
One focus of fomopsiosis is enough to damage the entire plant. When this disease is affected, the shoot is completely lost.
A disease that is also fungal in nature. Darkening of whole areas of shoots is visually observed, while, similar to fomopsiosis, only the bark is affected. However, unlike him, the shoot does not completely dry out, that is, the process of the course of the disease is reversible.
The leaves on the affected stem become lethargic and wrinkled, the flowers fall off, and the fruits, if they have time to set, dry up. The life cycle of the fungus that causes tuberculariosis is two years, that is, if timely measures are not taken, the situation will repeat itself next year.
Consider how the treatment of red currant diseases and their prevention is carried out, the most important points for clarity will be illustrated with a photo.
Treatment of already neglected forms of diseases, especially fungal ones, is ineffective and, most likely, will already be pointless. Therefore, in most cases, the therapy procedures will be reduced to removing damaged areas from the plant and destroying them, disinfecting the cutting sites and taking various preventive measures.
So, the treatment of anthracnose is reduced to processing the leaves several times a month with solutions of Bordeaux liquid at a concentration of 1%. An alternative to this method is the use of Nitrafen, the effectiveness of which is several times higher than the treatment with Bordeaux mixture.
Important! Nitrafen dissolves in soil for a long time. It is not recommended to apply it more than one cycle per season.
[/ su_quote] Similar measures are being taken to treat other fungal diseases. Powdery mildew, goblet rust, and in general all fungi stop their development and spread quite well when they are treated with Bordeaux liquid.
In some cases, a solution of ferrous sulfate in a concentration of 3-5% is also used.
The use of a solution of colloidal sulfur in a concentration of 1% against powdery mildew has also proven itself quite well. Usually in such doses it is used for prophylactic purposes, and when exposed directly to the affected areas, the concentration is increased to 2%.
Gray spot and diseases of the bark of red currant, in addition to the traditional means considered, can be treated with special means, for example, Fundazol or Topaz, as well as their analogues.
To combat reversion, garlic infusion is used (100 g of crushed garlic is poured with warm water), which is sprayed on the plants a week after flowering. The treatments are repeated several times at intervals of 2 weeks.
[su_box title = "Tip" style = "glass" box_color = "# FFDB00 ″ radius =" 5 ″]
However, it is not the drug that wins the disease, but the immune system. For this, the plant needs to create certain conditions so that it can independently cope with any problem. Consider what preventive measures are necessary in order to help the currants overcome possible diseases or even avoid infection at all:
By making such events, you can be guaranteed to save yourself from 90% of cases of the appearance of various diseases of red currants on the site.
In addition to diseases, some types of pests are also dangerous for red currants, which are able not only to feed on the juices and fruits of the plant, but also to be carriers of many of the diseases listed earlier.
Consider the most common pests of red currants and the fight against them.
The most annoying pest of all. Its peculiarity is that it causes damage to the leaves on the tops of the shoots and can damage the growth cone, after which the entire shoot may die. The result of the work of this pest is the appearance of red tubercles on young leaves at the top of the shoots.
The often growing colony of pests also spreads to other leaves, their spreading rate is so high that literally within 1-2 days the entire bush can be affected. That is why it is necessary to carefully inspect the plant every day for the appearance of various pests.
Also a nasty pest. First of all, it is unpleasant in that it requires the use of insecticides, potentially dangerous to humans, to destroy it. Zlatka is a small pest, which is a small bug several mm in size. It has an interesting shiny metallic yellow-green color.
A peculiarity of the pest is its relative invisibility - the larva of the goldfish makes moves in the core of the red currant, so you can notice its appearance after the fact, when, in fact, nothing can be done.
Adult beetles lay eggs on young shoots and feed on leaves.
Fighting aphids is easy enough. There are many insecticides that have a long-term effect, they do well with it and do not have any effect on humans. Examples of such drugs are Biotlin or Fitoverm.
Various pests from the world of insects (weevils, moths, sawflies and spider mites) can be treated with a wide range of insecticides - from the most powerful Actellic to simple Agrovertin.
To combat pests, like gold beetles, leaf gall midges, glass bowls and others, which are highly resistant to insecticides, preventive methods are used, which consist in constant loosening of the soil around the plant and regular weeding.
Fallen leaves and dried shoots are also regularly collected.
In addition, their larvae are more vulnerable to insecticides, and, knowing the time of release of the larvae of these pests from the ground, you can treat the soil with weaker and less dangerous insecticides, for example, Karbofos.
Diseases of red currants can cause a lot of trouble for gardeners, but you should not despair when they appear. The course of diseases and the life cycle of red currant pests are well studied and methods of countering them have already been repeatedly tested in practice.