So, we figured out the rooting of the cutting in water. And you are convinced that this option is really much better. But many violet growers plant the leaf immediately in the ground. We have already spoken about the disadvantage of this method. But you should know about this method, because with it, we will bypass the middle phase of rooting the cuttings in water. Because, in principle, the violet is not too whimsical.
Rooting the cuttings in the ground
The easiest way to do this is to choose an ordinary disposable plastic cup 100-150 ml. Pour drainage on the bottom, about one third of the container. To do this, you can select pieces of foam. After that, we fill up the soil on top. Here is what is worth noting. If you take pure peat or a peat tablet, you need to know that the guillemot will live in this substrate for quite a long time, and its children will appear and develop there until you plant them.
But peat will not provide all the useful and nutritious substances, which means that you will have to feed the plant more often and more abundantly. This is not very convenient. But the usual breeding ground for violets is very rough. So, the best way would be: mix peat and ordinary earth in one-to-one proportions.
Then make a 1.5-2 cm depression in the ground and place the stalk there at a slight slope. This is the most optimal depth to make it easier for kids to get to the surface. Then lightly sprinkle the stalk to fix the leaf. Just don't press too hard.
Next, you need to create the necessary conditions - to make a greenhouse. That means putting a glass under the jar. Better glass. It is possible under the plastic. But it's best to make a small greenhouse.
If you used the first method - rooting with water. Then, after the leaf has grown roots, follow the same procedures. With a few exceptions. If you chose a variegated variety, then do not dive the children, as they should gain more than one third of green pigment. If the sheets are pure white, then in no case should the mother sheet be removed. They need to grow together.
The first babies appear in a month and a half. May appear later. This is influenced by many factors: the condition of the cutting, temperature, lighting, humidity and much more. There is another little secret. If the cutting has fallen asleep, it is necessary, as they say, "scare" - cut off the upper part of the leaf a little, be sure to dry the cut so that it does not start to rot, and put it under the jar again.
Author: Veronika Viktorova Category: Plant propagation Published: February 28, 2019 Last revised: July 07, 2020
Violet lovers know that there are never many of them. Once, carried away by these lovely crumbs, my mother set them all the window sills on the north and northwest side of the house. She took cuttings and leaves from friends and relatives, bought detached bushes from grandmothers on the market, and even used flower stalks for rooting - it is easier to keep already bred chimera violets (varietal Saintpaulias). But I didn't grow it from seeds. Now this chaotic process has stopped - it's just that there is no free space for pots. Since my mother and I live together, I not only watched this whole process, but also took an active part in it (especially with regard to bringing a new piece of paper). Therefore, this story is about our experience.
Ornamental plants, like any other plants, reproduce in two ways: by seeds (sexually) and vegetative parts of the plant (asexually). The use of one or another method of reproduction depends on the life form of the plant and its biological characteristics. Sexual and asexual reproduction have their own advantages and disadvantages, which should be considered when choosing a method of reproduction of a particular ornamental plant.
Seed (sexual) reproduction. Seed reproduction is based on the process of formation of sex cells (gametes) and their fertilization, as a result of which embryos are formed, and subsequently - seeds. For seed propagation, the method of pollination of plants is essential. As you know, plants are self-pollinating and cross-pollinating.
In some plants, seeds are formed only as a result of self-pollination, such plants are called obligate self-pollinators (for example, most types of legumes).
In most plants, some of the seeds are formed from self-pollination, the other part from cross-pollination, such plants are called optional self-pollinators (for example, species of nightshade, bluegrass plants).
In a number of plants, seeds are formed only as a result of cross-pollination, such plants are called cross-growing self-incompatible plants (for example, most species of asteraceae, norichnikovs, etc.).
Knowledge of the pollination method is absolutely necessary for the organization of seed production of ornamental plants, i.e. mass production of seeds of certain varieties or hybrids.
Benefits of seed reproduction: 1) high multiplication factor 2) relatively low cost of seeds (except for seeds of hybrids P]) 3) plants grown from seeds have a core, well-developed root system 4) plants grown from seeds, as a rule, are more drought-resistant and in generally more hardy 5) the process of sowing seeds is fully mechanized 6) with seed reproduction there is no need to improve the planting material from diseases and pests
7) plant seeds remain viable for a long time (from one to several years).
Disadvantages of seed reproduction: 1) the relative misalignment of seedlings is possible for a number of signs due to violations of the technology of seed production; 2) the reproduction of a number of varieties of ornamental plants (perennial herbaceous, woody crops), by the seed method, is impossible due to splitting in the offspring by genotype.
Seed propagation is the main and, perhaps, the only way of propagation of annual and biennial herbaceous plants, as well as some perennial herbaceous plants (for example, some species of bluegrass). Seed propagation of most perennial plants is used for breeding purposes only to create new source material for selection. In woody plants, seed propagation is also used to obtain seed rootstocks, onto which grafting grades are subsequently carried out.
To obtain plants (seedlings) from seeds, two methods are used: 1) direct sowing of seeds in open ground in a permanent place (it is used relatively rarely - for some annual plants, as well as for bluegrass crops when creating a lawn)
2) sowing seeds in cassettes in protected ground, growing seedlings, and then transplanting seedlings into open or protected ground. The second method, called seedling, is the most common.
The advantages of the seedling method are that it allows: 1) to plant plants in open ground in the early stages; 2) to control the timing of achieving maximum decorativeness of plants in the open ground.
When seed propagation, one should remember about the varietal and sowing qualities of seeds. The main varietal quality seed purity is varietal purity - the proportion of plants of the main variety (in%) among the total number of cultivated plants of this culture.
Sowing qualities seeds are:
1) purity seeds: the mass of seeds of a given test crop, expressed as a percentage of the total mass of seeds 2) germination seeds: the proportion of seeds normally germinated within 7-10 days in a sample taken for analysis in a laboratory (laboratory germination) or a proportion of seedlings from the total number of seeds sown in open ground (field germination) 3) germination energy seeds - the proportion of normally germinated seeds in the first 3-4 days under laboratory conditions 4) weight of 1000 seeds - seed size index 5) bulk density (nature) seeds - weight of 1 liter of seeds 6) humidity seeds - the difference in the mass of seeds before and after drying, expressed as a percentage of the initial mass 7) sowing suitability seeds - the percentage in the seed material of clean and at the same time germinating seeds 8) infestation seeds by diseases, damage (population) by pests.
Vegetative (asexual) reproduction. Asexual reproduction is based on the process of cell division. Asexual reproduction is carried out in a variety of ways, among which there are natural and artificial methods of rice. 31).
TO natural ways include those that are carried out without human participation in natural growing conditions:
Artificial ways are carried out with the participation of humans, therefore they are more diverse and mainly they are used for vegetative propagation of ornamental plants. These include:
To each of the listed methods of vegetative reproduction
its own technology is inherent, detailed descriptions of which are given in Ch. 4 and 5, dedicated to the technologies of growing ornamental plants.
Benefits of vegetative propagation: 1) allows you to propagate any variety of an ornamental plant of hybrid origin 2) plants obtained in the process of vegetative reproduction are homogeneous in phenotype and genotype 3) vegetative reproduction significantly shortens the life cycle of plant development and contributes to the early onset of the generative period 4) vegetative reproduction can be carried out independently practically any person, provided he has some practical skills.
Disadvantages of vegetative propagation: 1) a relatively low multiplication factor (except for in vitro methods) 2) plants obtained as a result of vegetative propagation, as a rule, have a relatively weak, superficial root system of the fibrous type, since all roots are adventitious 3) vegetative parts of plants used for reproduction (cuttings, tubers, bulbs, etc.), have a short shelf life and require the creation of special conditions for their storage 4) some methods of vegetative reproduction require special practical skills in the person who carries out this reproduction (grafting), special tools, materials and equipment (cuttings, propagation in in vitro culture) 5) seedlings obtained as a result of vegetative propagation have a high cost.
Vegetative propagation is used for most perennial herbaceous plants and for all woody plants without exception. Varieties of woody plants reproduce only vegetatively.
The organization of vegetative propagation of varieties in plant growing is called nursery. A plant intended for planting and obtained by vegetative propagation is called sapling. Certain requirements are imposed on seedlings of various ornamental plants related to the development of the root system and the aerial part (see Ch. 4).
Family Gesneriaceae Gesneriaceae.
Genus Saintpaulia hybrida Saintpaulia hybrid.
African violet saintpaulia hybrid.
Reproduction of violets.
Violets are very unpretentious plants and are easily propagated by leaf cuttings. The best results can be achieved if you start rooting the leaves in early spring and summer. Planting cuttings too late will not allow sprouted babies to reach the required size for their separation. Well, if you are the lucky owner of several backlit shelves, you can propagate the varieties you like all year round.
Each leaf of Saintpaulia, even the smallest one, is already a fully formed organ, capable of forming its own roots, buds and giving rise to several new plants that will completely repeat the parent. Healthy adult young plants of medium size, with a well-formed rosette, not damaged by pests and diseases, are suitable for propagation by cuttings. A leaf stalk is taken from the second or third row from the bottom of the rosette, choosing the greenest, strongest leaf without signs of rot and drying, without scratches and burn spots.
You can root the leaf in water (preferably boiled), light soil (substrate for grafting), agroperlite, peat-humus tablets or sphagnum moss. When breeding violets from a cutting, it is advisable to plan the time so that the appearance of children does not occur during the summer heat. At such a time, children will be most susceptible to fungal infections and bacteriosis.
There are varieties of Saintpaulias that do not take root well in water. Rooting a violet leaf in the soil gives almost 100% germination of cuttings and saves germination time. It is also ideal for rooting cuttings of miniature and semi-miniature Saintpaulias. This method is more efficient and faster. This is due to the fact that the cutting immediately adapts to the conditions of germination and quickly gives roots and, consequently, babies.
Cuttings are planted in plastic pots with a diameter of 5 cm or other plastic containers. It is imperative to root the planted cuttings and keep them in the greenhouse until the babies appear (in a transparent plastic container, in a plastic bag, or even just covering it with a transparent cake lid) and ventilate it from time to time (or make small holes for ventilation). In this case, additional moisture is created, which is so necessary for violets, especially after the stress they have endured.
Peat tablet - is a small disk, which consists of compressed peat, coconut fiber with the addition of nutrients and microelements and is placed in a mesh shell. The tablet is the optimal medium for the rapid growth of violets. In a tablet, the cuttings rot much less often, and when transplanting the cuttings into the ground, there is no need to injure the root system. Leaves with roots can also be rooted in a peat tablet.Again, cover with a greenhouse and wait for the results. A leaf rooted in a peat tablet also needs to be watered and ventilated. Over time, when there are a lot of roots, you need to carefully get out the wet lump along with the cuttings and the children, and add down the mixture of the tablet with the substrate and disintegrants. Or you can plant the cutting in a 50-gram cup, and eventually transplant it into a 100-gram one. In short, a peat tablet is the same soil for planting, only safer for rooting.
Rooting in moss is also possible. This is very convenient when growing new varieties in the collection, when you want to quickly see flowering. Therefore, you need to add vermiculite to the moss (moss 3 parts, vermiculite 1 part), it will take away excess moisture and make the moss more crumbly, which is important when transplanting - such a mixture is easily shaken off from the roots and does not damage them. But after the babies hatch, the cuttings are transplanted with the family into a more nutritious soil.
Rooting the cuttings in agroperlite can be safely considered absolutely sterile, because at the initial stages of leaf germination, external nutrition is not needed. Breeding babies receive nutrition from the mother's leaf, and if the leaf is healthy and strong, it has everything you need. If you still think that the leaf rooted in clean perlite lacks nutrition, you can sometimes add a little fertilizer to the irrigation water. As the babies hatch, you need to start feeding them regularly - with a very weak solution of fertilizer for growth (not for flowering!). Then the grown children are planted in the usual mixture.
The necessary conditions are light, heat and moisture. It is necessary to guarantee stable artificial lighting and to minimize temperature differences. If not, you can place the cuttings in a bright place, but so that sunlight does not fall on them. Greenhouses cannot be kept on a cold windowsill; the temperature should not be lower than 22 degrees. Do not leave the greenhouse in direct sunlight. You should not fertilize the leaf with anything, then it will sooner release roots in search of food.
After a month, when the leaf is well rooted, the bag can be removed. The bag is removed from the plant after a month, when the children will be visible. With the advent of children, the greenhouse can no longer be used, and it is necessary to open it for airing gradually, accustoming it to other humidity conditions during the week.
Rooting a cutting of a violet.
Rooting a cutting of a violet in water.
Rooting a violet leaf in the ground.
Conditions for growing babies from cuttings.
Rooting the cuttings in a peat tablet.
Rooting the cuttings in sphagnum moss.
Rooting the cuttings in agroperlite.
The planting substrate should be prepared in advance. It should be lightweight, breathable and sterile. For the basis of the earthen mixture, I take the ready-made soil "Vermion for seedlings", pre-frozen at low temperatures for a long time. I want to give two options for the land mixture that I use myself.
1 package (2l) "Vermion for seedlings"
1 package (2l) "Vermion for seedlings"
1L "Living Earth" or "GreenWorld"
1 cup finely chopped sphagnum moss
1/5 cup finely crushed charcoal
1.5 cups finely chopped sphagnum moss
1/2 tsp without a heap of dolomite flour
2/5 cup finely crushed charcoal
2/3 tsp double superphosphate
1.For reproduction, it is best to take a healthy, without damage, violet leaf, characteristic of the variety, from the second row from the bottom or from under the peduncle.
2. Cut the leaf petiole with a new sharp blade at an angle of 45 °, the length of the petiole is left 3 cm. I also use a T-shaped cut: the first cut is at an angle of 90 °, then the second perpendicular to it cuts the petiole in half by 3-5mm. Under the ground, the two halves of the petiole move apart, which increases the root growth area, more children are formed and they grow more freely.
3. Rooting. You can root the leaf in water: in a glass jar or plastic cup in boiled water (add half a tablet of activated carbon there). When the length of the roots reaches 1.5-2 cm, plant the leaf in peat to a depth of 1 cm, water abundantly, cover with a bag and put in a bright (but without direct sunlight) and warm place, or you can immediately root the leaf in peat: after the cut is made, plant the leaf to a depth of no more than 1 cm in the ground, watered and covered with a bag. It can also be rooted in sphagnum. They put the leaf in a container filled with sphagnum.
Not a bad way. Sphagnum moss is known to have antibacterial properties. Moreover, it can be rooted both in dried, pre-soaked sphagnum, and in fresh, live.
Babies appear in 1.5-2 sometimes 3 months. All this time, they must be kept covered with a plastic bag, sometimes airing for several minutes. When 2-3 pairs of leaves appear on the children, they are seated each in a separate glass with a diameter of 6-7 cm (100g plastic glasses are very convenient) in loose soil with a high content of peat, perlite, vermiculite, sphagnum or coco-soil. To do this, take a pot and carefully take out a leaf along with an earthen lump. They shake off the ground and carefully separate the children from the leaf (I do this with my hands) so that each child gets a few roots. Cover with a bag for 2 weeks, and then remove it completely.
Transplant and rejuvenation
How to rejuvenate a violet?
If the length of the bare stem of the violet does not exceed 2 - 3 cm, and the stem of the plant has a green color, then such a Saintpaulia can be rejuvenated by transplanting with a deepening of the stem.
I do it like this:
- I take out the old Saintpaulia from the old pot
- I break off the lower leaves of the plant, which have lost their decorative effect
- with a sharp knife I cut off half of the earthen coma from below
- I put the plant in a prepared new pot with drainage, covered with fresh substrate
- I also add fresh substrate to the pot from the sides and on top of an earthen coma, sprinkling the bare stem of the plant to the lower leaves
- I water the transplanted violet and place it in a mini-greenhouse.
After a while, the bare stem of the transplanted violet sprinkled with the substrate is covered with new roots, which give the plant additional nutrition. As a result, the renewed Saintpaulia begins to grow actively and blooms beautifully.
This method of rejuvenating Saintpaulia is less traumatic. Therefore, I recommend not to bring the old violet to such a critical state, when you need to apply the second method of rejuvenating the outlet.
If the bare stem of an old Saintpaulia coarsens and turns brown, it is no longer able to form new roots. In this case, I use the second method of rejuvenating the violet - by rooting the cut stem in water.
- I take out the Saintpaulia from the old pot
- I remove the lower leaves of the rosette, leaving no more than 6 leaves (with this method of rejuvenation, the Saintpaulia greatly weakens, therefore the plant should have a minimum of green mass)
- with a sharp knife I cut off the stem of the violet at a distance of 3 cm below the last leaves
- I sprinkle the cut with activated carbon
- the resulting brown crust on the stem of the old Saintpaulia gently peel off with a knife to a green cloth
- after cleaning, slightly dry the stem of the violet
- I put the rosette of the plant in a glass of water, so that the cleaned end of the stem is dipped into the water.
After a while, roots appear on the stem of the Saintpaulia rosette. When the roots grow up to 2 cm, I plant the violet in a fresh earthen mixture and place it in greenhouse conditions. Soon, the rooted plant forms new leaves and produces flower stalks.
Both of the considered methods of rejuvenating Saintpaulia allow the old outlet to acquire new roots in place of the bare stem. Thanks to this, the plant restores its decorative effect, the old violet starts a new life.
A transplant is always a rather drastic intervention in the life of a plant, therefore it should be carried out at a time when the violet has the greatest supply of vitality, that is, in spring and summer. Usually both young and already adult plants are transplanted every year.
You can determine whether your violet needs a transplant by removing the plant from the pot. If at the same time you find that the earthen lump is closely intertwined with roots, and the earth is almost invisible, then a transplant is necessary. In this case, when caring for a plant, you can hardly limit yourself to watering and feeding. If not transplanted into a larger pot of fresh soil, sooner or later it will stop growing.
In addition, transplantation is also necessary because over time the composition and structure of the soil deteriorate: capillaries that conduct air are destroyed, an excess of minerals accumulates, which is harmful to the plant (a white bloom forms on the soil surface).
This method is used when the size of the rosette becomes two to three times the diameter of the pot. During transshipment, the old clod of earth is completely preserved. To do this, carefully remove the violet from the pot so that an earthen lump does not crumble. In a prepared larger pot, drainage is placed on the bottom. In the middle, an old empty pot is inserted into the drainage and the space between the pots is filled with a new earthen mixture, periodically tapping on the walls of the outer pot. The earth is not tamped from above. Old small pot, take out with a slight turn around the axis. This will preserve the shape-deepening better. The violet is carefully planted in this form. It is important to deepen the plant correctly, so that the new layer of earth is level with the old one.
Plant transplant with complete land replacement.
This method is used:
when the violet withers
with acidification of the soil,
if the violet has been growing in this soil for more than two years.
The essence of this transplant is to completely renew the soil and thoroughly examine the root system. The violet is removed from the pot. They crush the land ball and shake off all the soil. The roots are carefully examined, and if there are old or rotten roots, they are removed. Peduncles and yellowed lower leaves that have lost their elasticity are removed. Places of breakage of leaf cuttings are powdered with charcoal.
If most of the roots are removed, then transplanted into a smaller pot. The less roots are left, the more loose the soil mixture should be. The transplanted plant is placed in a greenhouse. Water about half a day after transplanting.
Plant transplant with partial land replacement.
This method is used every six months - a year with a planned transplant, when a partial renewal of the soil in a pot is required without injuring the root system. The violet is removed from the pot. Carefully remove the earth from the sides, above and below the earthy coma, easily crumbling earth, shake it off slightly. Drainage is placed on the bottom of the pot, a hill of soil mixture is made on top of the drainage. The plant is placed on this hill, carefully spreading the roots.
Components of a hybrid violet:
stem - shortened without internodes
leaves - fleshy elliptical or round shape on long stalks, rosette
inflorescence - develops from lateral buds at the base of the leaf
fruit - seed capsule from 1 to 3 cm, contains several hundred seeds.
For vegetative propagation, use: leaf cuttings, peduncles, side rosettes.
1) you should not take leaves from the lower row of a plant that have changed color, especially if they have necrotic spots or damage, or traces of pest damage
2) it is preferable to choose a well-formed, healthy leaf of the second row, under the outlet
3) in two-color varieties - we take light-colored leaves
4) for variegated Saintpaulias - choose a leaf with the maximum amount of green pigment.
The parts of the plant that you want to use for vegetative propagation must be: healthy, free from damage, free from pests. The optimal period is May / August.
Required materials and tools:
- opaque disposable cups (100ml)
- water (purified bottled)
- potting mix as for adult plants.
2. Cut the cuttings are dried in air for 30 minutes.
3. The cuttings are treated with a rooting stimulant (eg heteroauxin) according to the instructions on the package as for green cuttings.
4.Place the cuttings in disposable cups of water.
5. Conditions necessary for root formation:
6. After the roots of the cuttings have reached 2 cm, it is planted in the soil mixture at an angle of 45 0. The cut of the cutting deepens by 5-10mm. Planting is carried out in disposable cups, having previously made drainage holes in them.
The main requirements for the soil mixture used for rooting leaf cuttings: the ability to retain enough moisture so that the roots do not dry out, good aeration, so that the roots do not rot. In a nutritious, fatty enough mixture, the roots can rot in a few days. Excessive nutrition contributes to the growth of the leaf itself, which delays the appearance of children.
The composition of the soil mixture: 2 parts of leaf humus + 1 part of coniferous humus + 1 part of peat + 1 part of sod land + 1 part of sphagnum moss + 0.5 part of sand + 0.5 part of vermiculite + 5-6g of superphosphate per 10l of mixture + 10g of slaked lime (for each 10 l of the mixture).
Young leaves appear in 2–5 weeks. As a rule, several rosettes are formed on one handle. Separate the rosettes from the handle when each of them reaches 3 cm or more.
If, instead of the formation of young rosettes, a leaf plate begins to grow, then in this case 1/3 of its area is cut off.
Chimeric varieties of Saintpaulias, to preserve their decorative features, are propagated by rooting peduncles. In variegated varieties, young rosettes dive only when a sufficient amount (for independent development) of green pigment is formed on the leaves.
1) remove the leaf stalk together with a group of children from the ground, remove excess soil from the roots
2) we separate the uterine leaf from the "children" (if desired, it can be reused)
3) "kids" are separated from each other and planted in individual pots, watered, marked. Note: it is optimal that the "baby" has at least two leaves.