Agricultural technology for growing and storing onions


How we get high yields of various onions

Meteosensitive people feel unwell, headache or weakness when the weather changes. They should try eating more raw onions with bread. Onions regulate vascular tone very well, and do not be afraid of a strong bulbous smell. To get rid of it quickly, chew a slice of lemon, parsley, and some propolis.

Each gardener grows this healing vegetable in his own way on his plots. I want to share the secrets of a generous harvest of onions from my many years of practice.

I have a large part of the site occupied by this crop. We grow different onionas well as many varieties of shallots.

We prepare the soil in the fall, and in the spring we only process it with a walk-behind tractor. Note that fresh manure cannot be applied under the onion, it is better to use well-seasoned composts at the rate of 5 kg per 1 m². Wood ash (1 kg per 1 m²) and nitrophoska (25 grams per 1 m²) also work well on an onion bed. Two days before planting, I water the future beds with boiling water with manganese dissolved in it, for each square meter I sprinkle two tablespoons of superphosphate and dolomite flour. Unlike lime, it can be used in spring.

On the eve of planting, I cut off the neck of the bulbs and keep them in a manganese solution, then 3-4 hours in a growth stimulator and leave them moist overnight in plastic bags. As a rule, roots appear on the bottoms in the morning. I try to plant onions early in the morning. I arrange the beds from east to west, I make grooves 8 cm deep.To prevent the bottom of the bulb from rotting, I pour a pinch of salt into the groove, add ash there and lay out the sevok without pressing it into the ground, then the bulbs will not end up on their side.

When filling the grooves with the planted sevka, I slightly huddle, thanks to this, their roots are not injured and the distance from the bottom to the top of the scallop is 12 cm.The larvae laid down by the onion fly die while they overcome this distance. So groove after groove and I plant the whole bed. After the emergence of shoots, when the onion feathers reach a height of 5 cm, I water the plantings with a solution of sodium chloride (1 glass per bucket of water).

This procedure should be repeated ten days later, when the greens grow up to 10 cm. Salt will protect the onion from a serious disease - peronosporosis (downy mildew). During the growing season, my brother and I feed the onions twice with such a nutrient solution - for 10 liters of water we take 20 grams of ammonium nitrate, 40 grams of superphosphate, 10 grams of potassium sulfate or nitroammophoska. Watering the onion between the rows. In no case do we cut off leaves from plants planted on a turnip!

From June 1, we stop watering the onion, because from this moment it begins to form a turnip. With the beginning of the lodging of the leaves, when the bulbs have already formed and the outer scales have partially acquired the color characteristic of the variety, we start harvesting. Usually we choose a sunny day for this. Carefully dig in the bulbs, and then select them from the ground. I do not advise pulling out the turnip by the withered leaves - you can injure it, displace the bottom of the plant, such bulbs will be poorly stored.

We dry the onions in the attic or under a canopy, but not in the open sun, since even in one day of the onion being under the sun, the turnip can get serious sunburn, and this in the future can lead to decay and loss of the onion. We dry the bulbs for about a month, then cut off the remaining onion feathers, try to leave them longer - so there is more guarantee that fungal spores will not get into the turnip. We store the harvested crop in vegetable nets in a cool, dry place.

I can offer gardeners my seeds, onion sets and shallots. I am waiting for an envelope from you. Write: Brizhan Valery Ivanovich, st. Kommunarov d. 6, st. Chelbasskaya, Kanevsky district, Krasnodar Territory, 353715.

Valery Brizhan,
experienced gardener


Chamomile: cultivation agricultural technology, benefits and use in cosmetology

A unique plant, widely used by folk, official medicine, in cosmetology, and who in childhood did not read chamomile? It is an inexpensive drug available at any pharmacy.

You can often find it on the outskirts and even within the city, but it is not recommended to collect chamomile in these places for medicinal purposes, since it has absorbed exhaust gases and other harmful substances inherent in the "city air". If possible, then it is better to grow this medicinal plant in your garden, all the more chamomile to decorate any garden with your presence.


Bulb onions. Planting and caring for onions. Description of onion varieties

Agrotechnics of growing onions

Onion- the culture is not very demanding on heat. Frost-resistant, but with frequent frosts it shoots, so onions should be planted with the onset of stable warm weather. In spring, onions grow well in cool weather, and when ripe, they require dry, warm weather.

Onions are grown in a two-year culture.

In the first year, seeds are sown for getting sevka , On the second- planted sevok to get food. Seeds are obtained in the third year from turnip onions. In the south, onions are grown in annual crops from seeds. Since the root system of onions is located in the surface layer of the soil, light fertile sandy loams or loamy chernozems are preferable for it.

Place the bow in the second year after the introduction of fresh manure (5-6 kg / m 2) in order to avoid abundant leaf growth to the detriment of the turnip yield: on poor soils - in the first year after application in autumn) compost (5-6 kg / m 2).

In the absence of manure, apply:

  • ammonium nitrate (15-24 g / m 2), double superphosphate (12-20), potassium chloride (10-15 g / m 2).

On peat-boggy soils, it is necessary to add copper sulfate (1.5-3 g / m 2). Precursors: early white cabbage and cauliflower, cucumber, tomato, green vegetables, early potatoes. The onion is returned to its original place after three years on lungs and after three to five years on heavy soils on areas infected with white rot - after seven to eight years. With repeated sowing and planting, stem nematodes and causative agents of white rot accumulate.

Agrotechnics. Growing onions

In the southern regions, the following spicy, semi-sharp and sweet varieties are grown in annual culture:

  • early ripening Bessonovsky, Voronezh, Karatalsky, Mstersky Local, AnnualSiberian, Annual Khavsky, Odintsovets, Strigunovsky
  • mid-early Volgodonets
  • mid-season Danilovsky, Krasnodar G-35, Tybys, Chalcedony
  • late ripening Kaba and Spanish 313.

Growing onions from seeds

When grown from seeds (nigella), the onion does not throw out the arrow, the waste is 15-30% less than from the seed and the sample, the cost is the lowest, sowing can be carried out from mid-April.

Onion seeds are kept in a solution of potassium permanganate for a day (1 g per 1 liter of water) at a temperature (20 ° C). The solution is changed two to three times, then the seeds are washed with water and sprinkled on a wet cloth or on a saucer with water that covers the seeds by half for germination.

They are sown into the ground for sowing or food onions in the second half of April - early May to a depth of 1-2 cm on heavy soils, 2-3 cm on light soils. The ridge is made 1.5 m wide. The seeds are placed in seven grooves or in two lines every 20 cm, the distance in the row is 5-7 cm after thinning. Seeds germinate at (7 ° C).

When grown in an annual culture from seeds, it is advisable to apply fertilizers locally into the groove: organic - in the form of crumbs of well-decomposed compost or

  • garden fertilizer mixture (40 g / m 2) or
  • double superphosphate (15-20), potassium salt (20-25) during spring digging and
  • urea (10-15 g / m 2)before loosening seven to ten days before sowing seeds.

The grooves are powdered with ash. It is better not to feed the onion with mineral fertilizers; one feeding with slurry (1: 10) in the phase of two leaves is permissible.

Sprinkle onions during dry periods from May 1 to July 20, two or three times per season, 3-4 l / m 2. Periodically weed and loosen the soil. In wet years, when the ripening of the bulbs is delayed, the leaves are pressed to the ground by hand so that they turn yellow faster, or the roots are cut 5-6 cm below the bottom of the bulb and the soil is removed from the bulbs.

When lodging leaves bulbs are selected from the soil and scattered in a thin layer in a warm, ventilated room, on a balcony or ridges for ripening for 7-10 days. In this case, organic matter from the leaves flows into the bulb (do not immediately remove the green leaves). The bulbs are periodically turned over so that pathogens do not develop on wet scales. Dried onions, woven into braids or with trimmed leaves and a neck 3-4 cm long, are stored in a dry place.

Before storing onions are heated at (40-43 ° C) for 8 hours to avoid cervical rot. Bulbs with a thick non-drying neck and a non-sticking feather, as well as bulbs, are best used immediately for food, as they quickly rot.

Growing onions from sets

In the Non-Black Earth Region, the Urals, Siberia and other regions, turnip onions are grown from seed sets. To prevent onions from shooting, sets with a diameter of 1-2.5 cm and onions should be stored in one of three ways:

  • warm - at a temperature (18-25 ° C) and relative humidity (50-70%)
  • cold - under the snow in the cellar, refrigerator at (-1 ... -3 ° С) and relative humidity (80-90%)
  • cold-warm - at a temperature (18-25 ° С) and relative humidity of 50-70% - (in autumn and spring) at (-1 ... -3 ° С) and relative humidity of 89-90% - (with the onset of frost ).

If the storage regime is violated, two weeks before planting, the material is heated for 8 hours at (40-42 ° C) or 15-20 days at (25-30 ° C) - (over the battery). Sevok with a diameter of up to 1 cm, as a rule, does not point.

To speed up the germination of seedlings, cut the neck without touching the sprout, and soak it in water at a temperature (18-20 ° C) for 10-12 hours. Agrotechnics is the same as when growing from seeds.

Sevok is planted in late April - early May to a depth of 3-4 cm with five to six-line ribbons with a distance of 40 cm between them, between lines 15-20 cm, between plants in a row:

  • with a seed diameter of up to 1 cm: 4-5 cm
  • at 1-1.4 cm: 6-8
  • at 1.5-2.2 cm: 8-10 cm.

Around the planting material, the soil is compacted and a two centimeter layer of soil is poured on top so that only the tip of the bulb is visible.

Approximate planting rate, g / m 2:

  • small sevka: 40-50
  • average: 70-90
  • large: 120-170.

When growing seedlings in autumn or spring, compost soil is applied (bucket for 1 m 2) or fertilizer mixture (locally in a row up to 100 g / m 2) for cutting with a rake with the addition of a 0.5-liter can of ash.

Seeds soaked in a solution of potassium permanganate (1 g per 1 liter of water) at (40 ° C) for 8 hours are sown in late April-early May with five line ribbons in grooves with a distance of 40 cm between ribbons, between lines 10-15 to a depth of 1 , 5-12 cm.

After sowing, the soil in the rows is compacted. When shoots appear, it is mulched with fertile soil or compost crumbs. Then weed, watered and loosened. In August, after lodging of the feather, the sevok is pulled out and dried for 20-30 days in a well-ventilated room.

Growing onions from seedlingss

To accelerate the flow of onions of the southern early ripening varieties of the type Zolotoy Shar mid-ripening - Krasnodar G-35, Myachkovskiy 300, Chernomorskiy late-ripening - Spanish 313, Kaba and others in the middle lane and northern regions of the Russian Federation, it is advisable to grow onions by seedling method. For this, the seeds are sown in March in boxes to a depth of 1 cm and covered with foil.

  • Optimum temperature for emergence (18-25 ° C)
  • within four to five days after germination (8-12 ° C)
  • then (14-18 ° C)
  • at night (6-12 ° C).
  • Seedlings dive into pots with a diameter of 5 cm or are planted without diving.

Seedlings are fed at the age of three to four weeks with a mullein (1:10) or garden fertilizer mixture (20-25 g per 10 l of water). A week before planting, the seedlings are fed again in the same dose.

In late April - early May, 25-35-day-old seedlings are planted on a ridge with two or three lower case ribbons with a distance of 40-50 cm between them, between lines 15-20, in a row between plants 8-10 cm.

Before planting, the roots are shortened by 2-2.5 cm so that they do not twist, they are dipped in a gruel from a soil nutrient mixture and slurry (1:10).

With the seedling method of growing, a good harvest is also provided by the early ripening varieties Timiryazevsky, Strigunovsky and mid-season Danilovsky 301.

Growing onions for greens in the open field

Growing onions for herbs from onions-selection. The optimum temperature for growing green onions (16-20 ° C). For a continuous supply of green onions from early spring (in April-May), every 10-15 days, onion samples (small bulbs selected from food onions) are planted on an elevated and illuminated ridge of sandy loam or loamy-humus warm soil 1 m wide in rows with the distance between them and between plants is 5-8 cm, between the ridges (ribbons) 45-50 cm.

Onions are planted with a diameter of 2-4 cm by a semi-bridge method (with a distance of 1-2 cm) - at a rate of 3-6 kg / m 2 and by a bridge (close to each other) 8-12 kg / m 2.

For growing onions for greens from seeds sowing is carried out in April one to three to five lines with a distance between rows of 20 cm, in a row of 10-12, between belts 1 m wide: 45-50 cm with preliminary application under the previous culture:

  • organic fertilizers (4-5 kg ​​/ m 2), superphosphate (20-30 g / m 2) and urea (up to 20 g / m 2).

For 45-50 days of growing season, watered three to four times.

Against the onion fly dusted with a mixture of tobacco dust and lime (1: 1) at 10-20 g / m 2 or the same amount of wood ash. To scare off onion flies, you can plant carrots in the aisles of onions or in the neighborhood. The crop is harvested after 30-40 days from the beginning of regrowth at a leaf height of 25-40 cm.

For early production in the spring of samples (or seeds) they are planted (sown) in the fall 15-20 days before the onset of stable frosts. So that the plantings do not freeze, they are covered with a layer of peat, compost or soil thick 6-8 cm. In the spring, in March-April, snow is removed from the onion ridges, watered with warm water and covered with a film to quickly melt the snow and heat the soil. This speeds up the arrival of the crop by 10-12 days.

Description of onion varieties

Varieties. Early ripe.

Stuttgarter variety Riesen. One of the best varieties in the world. The bulbs are large, dense. The taste is spicy. The variety is stable, does not shoot after storage. The period from sowing to ripening is 120 days.

Shetan's variety.The bulbs are firm, with a pleasant semi-spicy taste. From sowing to ripening, 120 days pass. Yield 4-5 kg / m 2.

Early ripening, sharp, easy-going.

  • Variety Bessonovsky Local (variety of the Penza region). Grown in a two-year culture from seed or sample. The bulb is round-flat and flat, juicy, weighing 35-46 g or more, with an average nesting capacity (2-4) and primordium (2-3). 8-13 powerful leaves grow from the seed. From seedlings of seedlings to mass lodging of leaves, it takes 55-75 days, when sowing with seeds, 85-105 days, from planting the seeds to full ripeness of seeds, 120-135 days. The yield of food onions grown from seedlings, 1.1-2.6 kg / m2, from seedlings 1.5-2, seedlings from seeds 0.5-0.8 kg / m2, seeds from mother liquor 80 g / m2 2. The maturation of the bulbs before harvesting is 80-100%. Stores well. In some years, the variety is strongly affected by downy mildew and neck rot. Onion fly damages him above average, onion lurker - medium.
  • Variety Metersky Local Superior (an old local variety of the village of Metera, Vladimir region), Rostov Onion Local (an old local variety of the Rostov region of the Yaroslavl region). Early ripening varieties grown in an annual culture from seeds and in a biennial culture from seedlings. The bulb is round-flat and flat, flat, juicy, weighing (20-60 g), small-nested (2-4), medium-sized (2-4), with a pungent taste.From seedlings of seedlings to lodging of leaves, 50-60 and 65-110 days pass, respectively, when sowing with seeds 80-120 from planting uterine onions to ripening of seeds 90-100 and 125-130 days. The growing period is 58-100 days. The yield of food onions is 1.5-3.5 and 1.4-3.2 kg / m 2, seeds are 30-50 g / m 2. Ripening of bulbs before harvest is 51-95%, after ripening 95.7-100%. Stored well. Varieties are affected by powdery mildew, respectively, strongly and moderately. In some years, they are affected by neck rot and onion fly damage above average and severely.
  • Variety Strigunovsky Local (local variety of the Kursk region). Grown in an annual culture from seeds and in a biennial culture from seedlings. Sow before winter or early spring. The bulb is rounded, with a slight escape to the neck, dense, juicy, weighing 45-200 g, two or three primordial, small-celled (1-3). The period from seed germination to harvesting is 70-120 days. Productivity 1.2-4 kg / m 2. Ripening of bulbs before harvesting 49-97%, after ripening 93-100%. The variety is affected by downy mildew (in some years), white neck rot. It is damaged by an onion fly, a hidden proboscis and a hoverfly.
  • Variety Timiryazevsky. Grown from seedlings, in the south - from seeds. The bulb is round-flat, very dense, large, weighing 50-120 g, small-celled, two to four primordial. From germination to lodging of leaves 55-90 days pass. The yield of food onions is 1.8-3.8 kg / m 2, seedlings are 0.7-2.2. Maturation before harvesting 64-100%. The variety is affected by downy mildew (severely in some years), the onion fly damages it more moderately.
  • Also zoned spicy varieties with good keeping quality, with a yield, kg / m 2: early ripening varietiesAntaeus: 2,2-3,8, Vertyuzhansky Tiraspol: 1,2-2,5, A guess,Iris: 1,8-1,9, Myachkovsky Local Superior: 0,9-1,7, Pogarsky Local Superior,TerekhovskyLocal: 1,4-2,7, Ufa, Amber early maturing Early Yellow: 2,2-3,3.

Early ripening, semi-acute, lying. Voronezh, Karatalsky, Annual Siberian, Annual Khavsky 74. Grown in an annual culture from seeds at the earliest sowing in spring or before winter, suitable for sevka culture. One-year-old Khavsky 74 is prone to shooting under unfavorable conditions. The bulb is round and round-flat, with a run to the neck, dense and medium density, large, juicy, weighing 35-110 g (in the Karatalsky variety up to 200 g). From germination to complete lodging of leaves in an annual culture, 85-120 days pass (for Karatalsky, 95-135 days), when grown from seedlings in all varieties, 75-110 days. The yield in an annual crop is 1.3-2.9 kg / m 2, from seedlings up to 3.6-4.2 (in Karatalsky up to 7 kg / m 2), seeds are 40-80 g / m 2. Maturation after ripening is 55-100%. In some years, varieties are affected by downy mildew, neck rot, and onion fly damage.

Mid-early peninsular. Variety Volgodonets. Universal use, one nested, one or two rudimentary. The bulb is round, bright yellow, weighing 35-75 g. In the south, it is advisable to cultivate the variety in an annual culture. Ripening of bulbs before harvesting 89-98%, after ripening 99-100%. Productivity 1.4-3.2 kg / m 2. Downy mildew is strongly affected, cervical rot is weak.

Mid-season, spicy, lingering . Arzamas Local (local variety of the Nizhny Novgorod region). Grown from sevka, does not shoot. The bulb is rounded-oval, running down, rarely elongated-oval, dense, juicy, weighing 30-75 g, one to three primordial, two to three-nested. 65-95 days pass from seedlings of seedlings to harvesting. The yield of food onions is 2.5-4.2 kg / m 2, seeds are 50-90 g / m 2. Ripeness 87-97%. 80-82% of the bulbs are preserved until May; they do not germinate during storage. The variety is affected by downy mildew (severely in some years), neck rot (above average). Onion fly and onion lurker in some years severely damage plants.

Mid-season, semi-acute, lying. Variety Carmen. It takes 120-130 days from germination to harvest. Productivity 4-5 kg ​​/ m 2.

Variety Odintsovets. A universal variety for cultivation in an annual crop from seeds and a two-year crop from seedlings. Small-nested (1-2), two or three primordial. The bulbs are round-flat, sometimes flat, weighing 55-80 g, dense, juicy. The growing season in an annual culture is 110-120 days, in a two-year culture, 105-110 days. When ripening, up to 86% of the bulbs in an annual culture and 87-90% in a two-year culture ripen. Productivity 1.2-4.1 kg / m 2. Peronosporosis is strongly affected, cervical rot and onion flies are moderately affected.

Mid-season varieties with a yield, kg / m 2 are also zoned: Donetsk Golden: 2,2-3,9 Kalinchinsky Local: 2,1-3,1 Lietuvos Didy: 0,9-1,5 Markovsky Local: 1,3-2,8 Kartlis: 3,3-5 Moldavian: 1,8-3,9 Spassky Local Improved: 1,5-4 Skvirsky (Tsitaussky): 1,5-2,4 Strigunovsky Nosovsky: 2-3,2 Tybys: 1,4-3,2 Ufa Local: 1,2-3,8 Chalcedony: 2-6 Black Sea (acute and semi-acute): 1.5-2.3 El Dorado and etc.

Mid-season, semi-sharp and sweet, maturing varieties. Danilovsky 301 (local Yaroslavl region), Myachkovsky Local. They are planted with sowing or sown with seeds before winter or early spring. The bulb is round-flat, large, weighing 60-120 g (in the variety Myachkovsky Local up to 300 g), medium density. The taste is semi-sharp, closer to sweet. Dry scales are dark purple and yellow, respectively.

The best salad onions. The period from germination to harvesting in an annual crop from seeds is 90-120 days, in a two-year crop from seedlings 65-95 days. Maturation in an annual culture is 68-75%, in a two-year crop 75-92, after ripening up to 99.5%. Productivity, respectively, 3.6 and 2.4-5.3 kg / m 2, with amicable ripeness. Variety persistence Danilovsky 301 by January 89%, by May 77% Myachkovsky Local 77-95%, sowing up to 83%.

Variety Myachkovsky Local popular due to its high yield. Varieties are strongly affected by peroposporosis.

Mid-season, semi-hot and sweet, salad dressing, not easy. Krasnodar G-35, October, Orange (sweet). Grown from seeds in an annual culture, sevkom and seedling method. The bulb is round and round-oval, dense, weighing 90-114, 50-70 and 70-120 g, respectively (with irrigation up to 800 g). The taste of the first two is semi-sharp, the latter is sweet. Dry scales are yellow, yellow-brown, sometimes with a pink tint. 1-2 buds (2-3 for the Orange sweet variety). The leaves are large, from 5 to 15 cm long. They are used fresh and for canning. From germination to lodging of leaves in an annual culture, 95-140, 95-130 and 102-110 days pass, respectively. The yield of food onions is 2.1-3.9 3-4.8 and 3.2-4.1, with irrigation up to 7 kg / m 2. The ripening rate of the bulbs before harvesting is 50-97.5% (variety Oktyabrsky6 /: 96-99%), when ripening is up to 100%. They are affected by downy mildew, cervical and white rot (Oktyabrsky-cervical and white rot is weak). Onion fly damages them slightly (Orange - medium).

There are medium late maturing varieties with yield, kg / m 2: Gusanovsky Local: 1,5-3 Dniester: 1,7-4,2 Kakhuri Brtkeli: 2,6-4,3 Solar: until 3 Union: 2,3-3,4 Chebotarsky Local: 1,5-2,7 Chernihiv: 2,4-3,2.

Late ripening, spicy, lingering. Variety Luhansk... Grown in an annual culture by sowing seeds in the ground in the south and sowing in other regions. The bulb is round, weighing 80-120 g, small-sized. The taste is intermediate between spicy and semi-sharp. The period from germination to harvesting is 110-155 days. Productivity 1-3, with irrigation 2-4 kg / m 2.

There are also known spicy decaying varieties with yield, kg / m 2: Grandina, Coperides, Pavlogradskiy: 1,6-2,5 Schvilissis: 2,2-4,9 Chernihiv, Kaba 132 (semi-sharp with satisfactory keeping quality): 1.8-2.8.

Late ripening, semi-hot and sweet, salad. Spanish 313, Kaba (Kaba Yellow), Kachinsky... Sweet varieties used for salads, and Kaczynski for canning. Grown in an annual culture from seeds in the south, seedlings and seedlings in central Russia. The bulbs are round (in the first two) and rounded-flat with a downward slope, large, weighing 60-260, 80-250 and 70-100 g, respectively, dense, juicy, one-three-bud. The taste is semi-sharp, closer to sweet. From seed germination to lodging of leaves in an annual culture takes: 110-140, 110-165 and 150 days, when grown by seedlings: 175-185 days. Ripeness of bulbs up to 1oo%. The yield is high: food onions: 2.4-4.6 1.9-4.5 and 4.3 kg / m 2, seeds 40-70 g / m 2. Keeping quality is medium or weak.

Varieties are affected in unfavorable years by downy mildew (strongly, up to 40-60%), neck, bacterial rot and rust (medium). The onion fly damages them moderately and severely.

The varieties are also zoned from mild to sweet taste, medium and mild with yield, kg / m 2: Andijan Local: 1,2-1,7 Mirgelan Round: 2-2,7 Elongated: 1.8-3.3 Samarkand Red: 1,3-2,7: Massaly Local and Khachmas Local: 1,6-2,9 Farabsky Local, Khutunar Local: 1,3-1,5, Yalta Local.


Agricultural technology for growing and storing onions - garden and vegetable garden


It is also known as winter onion, stone, sandy, sandy, Tatar, Budak, Butun, Butun, Savage, Sonchina, Shooter, Tatar. Central Asia, presumably Altai, is considered its homeland. Batun is especially common in China, Korea and Japan, Siberia and the Far East.

A BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF

Fistus - perennial, has oblong false bulbs with a diameter of 3-4 cm, covered with dry scales of yellow-brown color. The bulbs are attached to a short, thick, oblique rhizome. The roots go deep into the soil by 30-60 cm, in the horizontal direction they spread to 60-80 cm. The seeds retain their high germination capacity for 3-4 years.

Of 3 subspecies of batun mainly Russian is grown. It includes low, highly branching plants with small dark green leaves that are pungent in taste and quickly coarse. Frost resistant.

Varieties: Goibovsky 21 (Voskhod), Maisky 7 and Ordinary. Onion - a good honey plant, giving a lot of nectar.

NUTRITIONAL AND HEALING VALUE

Leaves and bulbs contain sugars, flavonoids, protein, fat, organic acids, essential oil, phytoncides, carotene. From trace elements, iron, manganese, zinc, copper, boron, nickel, molybdenum, cobalt were found from macroelements - potassium, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, bromine. From vitamins - B1, B2, C, D.

REQUIREMENTS FOR GROWTH CONDITIONS

Perennial highly branched plant. Propagated by seeds. The bulbs are poorly expressed. Grown for the leaves.

In the first year, it forms several plants from one seed, and in the next year it grows to twenty with several tens of leaves each. Wakes up very early in the spring. The snow will only have time to melt, and green leaves have already appeared on the batun. Loves fertile soil. Forms flower stems in the second year.

Seeds are sown in June and July. The next year, with a perennial culture (sometimes one-year and two-year), the leaves are cut twice a season, with a two-year one - several times. By autumn, by dividing the bottom, the onion forms several daughter plants. With an annual culture, they are harvested in the fall.

In terms of chemical composition and vitamin content, the leaves of the batun are close to onions.

Batun - the plant is frost-resistant. Seeds germinate already at 2-3 ° C (optimum temperature 18-20 ° C). This onion easily tolerates dry air and soil, but with a lack of moisture gives rough leaves. High yields of trampoline can be obtained on highly fertile, structural, moderately moist sandy loam and light or medium loamy soils, free from weeds. Heavy clayey, excessively moist, acidic soils are unsuitable.

AGROTECHNICS OF GROWING

A site is required that is freed from snow early in spring, well warmed up, protected from northern winds, even and without depressions, because the batun does not tolerate flooding by melt and rainwater. It is advisable to make ridges with a slight slope to the south or southeast. The best predecessors are early potatoes, cucumbers, tomatoes, early cabbage, dill, radishes.

Since autumn, the soil is dug to a depth of 20-25 cm and fertilizers are applied. From organic matter, rotted manure or compost is used in an amount of 5-6 (up to 10) kg per 1 m 2. Superphosphate (40-50 g / m 2), potassium salt (15-20 g / m 2) and ammonium nitrate (10-20 g / m 2) are used as mineral fertilizers. Organic fertilizers and half of the superphosphate and potassium salt are applied in the fall during digging, and the rest of them and all of the ammonium nitrate - in the spring.

Onion in the open field cultivated in annual and perennial crops. With an annual, seeds are sown in late April or early May, the harvest is harvested in August, digging up the plants along with the bulb. With perennial crops, seeds are sown in spring, in June - July, after harvesting early ripening crops or before winter. In the second and subsequent years of cultivation, only the leaves are cut.

With a long-term culture of the trampoline, film shelters are used to obtain greens earlier. At the same time, plants in March are sprinkled with a layer of peat or humus 2 -4 cm thick in order to accelerate the melting of snow, and then covered with a film. The crop is harvested in late April - early May, 2-3 weeks earlier than in the open field.

Wide-row sowing is more often used with a distance between rows of 45-50 cm. The depth of seeding is 1-1.5 cm (on light soils, 2-3 cm). To accelerate the emergence of seedlings, before sowing in spring and summer, they are soaked for a day in water at room temperature (but most effectively in a solution of trace elements). The water is changed 2-3 times. Then it is drained, the seeds are dried until flowable and sown in moist soil. After soaking, you can put them between several layers of gauze, and sow immediately when seedlings appear. After sowing, the rows are sprinkled with peat or humus with a layer of 1 -1.5 cm.

For vegetative propagation, bulbs are used, which are obtained by dividing 3-4-year-old bushes. Landing: late April - early May or 2nd half of August (the best landing time). The bulbs are planted in rows at a distance of 20-30 cm between plants and 50 cm between rows. For planting, you can also use 50-60-day-old seedlings grown in greenhouses or greenhouses. The planting pattern is the same as for planting bulbs.

After the emergence of shoots, weeding is carried out and the spacing of rows is loosened. When the 3-4th leaf appears, the seedlings are thinned out at a distance of 10-12 cm and at the same time they are fertilized with ammonium nitrate (15 g / m 2), superphosphate (10 g / m 2) and potassium chloride (8 g / m 2) or manure slurry (1: 6). In early spring, the site is cleaned, loosening and fertilizing are carried out with mineral fertilizers: 60 g / m 2 of ammonium nitrate or 30 g / m 2 of urea, 40 g / m 2 of superphosphate and 15-30 g / m 2 of potassium chloride. Can be fed with slurry of 0.5 liters per 1 m 2. After each feather cut - loosening the soil and feeding with mullein or liquid mineral fertilizers (50 g of ammonium nitrate, 30 g of superphosphate, 20 g of potassium chloride per bucket of water). Wood ash can also be added: in dry weather - in solution (200 g per bucket of water), in wet weather - in dry form (200 g / m 2).

CLEANING AND STORAGE

Onion-batun young leaves are used for food together with bulbs or only leaves. Cutting is carried out 2-3 times per season as the leaves grow back, when their length reaches 25-30 cm, preventing the formation of peduncles. The first cut is carried out in the spring, 1-1.5 months after the beginning of the regrowth of the leaves, the subsequent ones - after 20-30 days. The leaves are cut with a part of the false stem at a height of 5-7 cm from the soil level so as not to damage the growth buds.

Harvesting is stopped no later than 2 months before the onset of stable cold weather, so that new leaves can grow and a sufficient amount of nutrients accumulate in the bulbs. In the last year of use, the plants are harvested in the fall along with the bulbs. The bulbs are dug up and air-dried without cutting off the tops. The cut greens are stored at 3-5 ° C.

FOR HOME PHARMACY

In folk medicine onion - batun used as a diaphoretic, diuretic, hemostatic, tonic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory agent. It is used for atherosclerosis, hypertension, flu, fever, dysentery, dyspepsia, rheumatism, gout, and even to prevent cancer. Onion gruel, wrapped in a thin cloth, is applied to the wound and cleanses it of pus.

TO YOUR TABLE

The leaves are used as a seasoning for various dishes (soups, okroshka, salads, marinades, sauces), for filling pies, eggs, decorating snack dishes (herring, caviar, mushrooms). They are put in pates, on sandwiches with butter.

Leaves can be baked with eggs, cheese, salted or fermented like cabbage, while retaining vitamins, specific taste and aroma. Ingda bulbs are pickled.


Harvesting beets

The root crop must be harvested before the onset of frost (end of September - first half of October). Beets start harvesting when the leaves turn yellow. Frozen root crops are poorly stored and are affected by fungal rot and other diseases in storage. After harvesting, the root crops are sorted, separating absolutely healthy ones. The tops are cut off, leaving hemp up to 1 cm. Healthy roots are dried and stored. The storage temperature is +2 .. + 3 ° С. Storage methods are varied: in boxes with sand, sawdust, dry peat in plastic bags, in bulk, etc.


Diseases and pests

In cool, damp weather, shallots can infect fungal diseases: powdery mildew, downy mildew or downy mildew, neck rot and fusarium wilting. Unhealthy plants need to be removed immediately, and healthy ones should be sprayed with the composition of Quadris, Pentofag or mycosan. However, keep in mind that after processing with chemistry, there should be no shallots for some time - the duration of exposure to toxic substances must be indicated in the instructions for use of the substance.

In order to avoid infection of shallots with fungi, before planting, the sets are etched in the composition of the Maxim for thirty minutes. The sowing material that you intend to use in the next year is also recommended to be processed with Maxim before saving it.

Of the parasites, the onion fly annoys the shallot, which appears during the flowering of cherry and dandelion. Plants affected by the fly wither and rot. You can exterminate the pest by dusting the soil and shallots with wood ash. If you find worms on the onion, the best way to deal with them is to treat the shallots on the leaves with a solution of a glass of salt in ten liters of water.

An onion nematode, which distorts the bottom of the mother's bulb, can inflict tremendous harm on the shallot. If a bulb affected by nematodes gets into the garden, it can infect healthy plants. You can use such a bulb for planting if you attach it to a thermos with water heated to a temperature of forty-five degrees for an hour, or pickle it for a couple of minutes in a four percent formalin composition.

The greenish feathers of the shallot are adored by the garden aphid, the uncontrolled reproduction of which can form a serious problem. There are quite a few folk remedies against aphids, in particular, decoctions of pepper, chamomile or potato skins. Of the acaricidal substances in the fight against aphids on shallots, Verticillin has excellently characterized itself.

I took care of the shallots. Well, how worried I was: I decided to update the park. And then I grow exclusively the local Babsko-market. Blue and white.

In general, shallots in our sushi turn out much better than onions, for example, the largest onion onion I had last year was the size of a ping-pong ball, well, that's how it rained, and the shallot is not large in itself, so at least it's not a shame :)

You can plant it when you already have a lot of free time - in late autumn, before winter, and in February windows, when you can't plant anything else. And most importantly, nothing will happen to it: it will freeze - it will unfreeze, it will continue to grow.

For culinary perversions - the best onion, the French will not let you lie. The range of flavors - from pungency: one onion in a saucepan of soup, to sweetness: we eat like an apple :) You want to pass, you want to eat crumbly salad raw. Do I need to remind you that any onion mentioned in French recipes is 90% shallots a priori?

The color of juicy scales: white, yellow, pink, red, and 50, as they say, in narrow literary circles, shades of lilac-purple.
Champion in keeping quality, you used to climb into the basement in May - any onions have already rotted - and this one, you see, is alive.
In general, a good bow, good.

So the most difficult thing was to navigate in the variety of varieties. As it turned out, there are not very many competent descriptions of varieties, very few are direct, everything is quite fragmented, in places confused and very contradictory.
What are the "pearls" in the description of the variety, for example: "... If we talk about taste, the difference with ordinary onions will be evident immediately after you add" Germor "to one of your usual dishes. Its deep subtle aroma fills the dish special piquancy. "

Yes, yes, it tastes like that, it immediately catches the eye. Or "Shallot, whose photo you can watch, with the romantic name" Griselle "carries a lot of positive traits, both for a novice gardener and for an avid gardener. and the harvest of onions turns out to be very noble ... "

A separate task is to understand what is suitable for a particular region. I concluded that there are specially bred varieties, there are universal ones, and the rest can be taken, planted and watched what grows :), in private.

In general, with the aim of choosing varieties for myself, I shoveled a bunch of information, here I am spreading the squeezes (from which it's my own choice) here, maybe someone else will need it. Well, agricultural technology to the heap.

SHALLOT
Shallots are also called multi-lobed, shrike, kushchevka and nesting. This onion is very similar in character to the onion. The only difference is that shallots have stronger branching, smaller bulbs and are stored much longer. He also needs more heat and sunlight than onions. Shallot bulbs are much smaller than onions, but they are more delicate in taste.
They are multi-primordial, medium-sized, 25-75 g, dense, depending on the type of spicy or semi-sharp taste. One planting bulb can produce 6-12 bulbs, and sometimes the number of bulbs in a nest can reach 20-25.
Bulbs mature on average 70-80 days after planting, and greens can be used 25-30 days after planting. Prefers fertile soil. Best predecessors: legumes, pumpkin seeds and greens. In autumn, 5-6 kg of humus per m², 40-50 g of superphosphate, 200 g of wood ash are introduced into the garden before digging.
Landing... Shallots are planted in autumn and spring, as it is a very cold-resistant crop. Shallot is very tenacious. So, in the soil, the bulbs freeze and thaw many times, almost without damage. The bulbs do not die or even rot.
In the spring they are planted as soon as the soil warms up. For planting, it is recommended to use bulbs with a diameter of about 2.5-3 cm.They are planted to a depth of 5-6 cm, so that there is a layer of soil 2-3 cm above them.Too shallow planting often leads to bulging of the bulbs from the ground, and too deep gives small bulbs ... The distance between the rows is 20-30 cm, between the plants in the row -10-15 cm. After planting, the plants must be watered and the ridges must be mulched.
Care consists in regular loosening and weeding. Watering during droughts.
Reproduction... Shallots are propagated more often in a vegetative way. For this, in the fall, after harvesting, the bulbs weighing 25-40 g are selected. The seeds of the shallot are small, their germination rate is low (50-70%). However, it should be remembered that long-term vegetative reproduction (within 5-7 years) leads to the accumulation of diseases, aging, and hence to degeneration. Therefore, they resort to growing renewed planting material from seeds or from air bulbs formed on peduncles.
Growing shallots from seeds. Sowing seeds is carried out two weeks before the first frost in the southern regions. And throughout the rest of the territory, it is carried out in early spring, after the ground warms up a little.
The seeds are sown line by line, so that the distance between them in the lines is 5 - 8 cm, and between lines 15 - 20 cm. Already in the first year of cultivation, nests with 2-4 small bulbs are formed, which are then used to further obtain a large number of new planting material.
It is advisable to carry out such a change of seeds at least once every four years.
Pest control... To scare off the onion fly, which often falls on the onion, carrots are planted along the edge of the garden, and plants with a strong odor are laid out in the aisles - tansy, wormwood, yarrow. Some gardeners water the plantings with saline (1 tbsp. Salt per 10 liters of water) once a week from the beginning of the growth of the leaves until the beginning of July.
The ridges need to be mulched and the soil near the plants is constantly loosened. Shallots are harvested from late July to mid-August, after the leaves have lodged. It is undesirable to be late in harvesting, the bulbs may begin to germinate, especially if the soil is wet. During storage, shallots are much less susceptible to disease than onions. The most common disease is bacterial bulb rot.
To keep the bulbs well, you need:
Do not overfeed the plants with a large amount of nitrogen fertilizers applied during feeding
To carry out planting in normally moist soil
Do not water the onions 3-4 weeks before digging the bulbs
· Do not grow shallots in one place for more than 3-4 years.
From time to time, the planting material must be updated, since various infections quickly accumulate in it, which lead to poor storage of the bulbs. You can get planting material from seeds.

Shallot varieties. Description... There are many varieties of shallots. As with onions, shallot varieties are divided into early, medium and late according to the ripening period. Onions to taste: semi-sharp, spicy and sweet. Shallots are also different in shape. There are barrel-shaped (Kirovsky, Vyatsky), flat (Ural purple, Ryzhik), elongated, spindle-shaped. Also varieties of shallots differ in the color of the scales and the degree of branching, that is, the number of leaves and bulbs in the nest. Some of them are included in the State Register of the Russian Federation, and even more varieties of folk selection. The peculiarity of modern shallot varieties is their ability to seed propagation, which contributes to the spread of the culture. Some of the shallots are described below.
Ayrat... A mid-season semi-sharp onion variety for cultivation in household plots in a biennial culture. Productivity 1.6 kg / sq.m. The bulb is round, with yellow dry scales, weighing 15 g. Forms 5-6 bulbs in the nest.
Albik... A mid-season semi-sharp variety with a growing season of 62 days. The bulbs are transversely eleptic, weighing up to 25-30 g, there are from 3 to 8 bulbs in the nest. Dry scales are yellow, juicy - greenish. The variety has high keeping quality, yield - from 13 to 25 t / ha, suitable for winter planting.
Andreyka... A mid-season semi-sharp variety with dark brown dry and pinkish juicy scales for private household plots. The bulb is cross-elliptical, weighing 26 g. Productivity 1.8 kg / sq.m.
Afonya... Mid-season semi-sharp fruitful variety (2.0 kg / m2). Bulb broadly ovate, weighing up to 30 g. Dry scales are dark red, juicy reddish. The number of bulbs in the nest is 4-5.
Belozerets 94... The variety is early maturing with a spicy taste. Ripens in 76-85 days. The bulbs are round and round-oval, weighing 21-27 g. The color of dry scales is light lilac with a yellow tint, juicy - purple with a lilac tint. The yield of turnip onions is 12.4-14.1 t / ha. Marketable bulbs, lying. The variety is recommended for the North Caucasus region.
White Queen. Bulbs are large up to 70 g, forms a large nest, up to 10 pieces, white-cream scales, pure white pulp, juicy sweet-spicy taste, with medicinal properties, excellent storage, multiplies quickly, bulbs are round-elongated.
White penguin. Bulbs are large up to 80 gr, forming a nest of up to 6 bulbs. The scales are white, the flesh is pure white, juicy in taste, sweet-spicy, with medicinal properties. The shape of the bulbs is round-oval-elongated, up to 4-5 cm in height. 3-4cm in diameter. Stores well up to 8 months. The feather is sculpted, thin, up to 50 cm high, light green, delicate, with a pleasant onion aroma.
Bonnila F1... The variety is included in the State Register for the Central Region. Originator: BEJO ZADEN B.V. Belongs to mid-season varieties of semi-sharp taste, grown in one place for up to five years. The yield of a turnip with leaves is 1.5 kg / sq.m. Grown in an annual culture from seeds. The growing season is 82-87 days. In the nest there are 4 or more round-shaped bulbs weighing 30-39 g each. Dry scales of the bulbs are yellow-brown. The variety is lazy, gives stable yields of greens and bulbs.
Velikoustyugsky... Bulbs of unprecedented onion-round shape. Strong, vigorous, brown-red in color, rather sharp, weighing up to 80g. Well, a real northern masterpiece! Very productive, there are 6-10 beautiful bulbs in the nest.
Vitamin basket... An early ripe variety with a spicy taste. From germination to harvesting on a green feather 19-22 days, to mass lodging of leaves 65-70 days. The color of dry scales is yellow, juicy - white. Bulbs weighing up to 30 g. Recommended for growing on green feathers indoors in winter and spring. The keeping quality of the bulbs is high.
Guarantee... A mid-season semi-sharp variety with a 51-day growing season. The bulbs are round-flat, in the nest from 4 to 10 pieces. Dry scales are light brown with a grayish tinge. Bulb weight 21-32 g, yield - 14.1-24.6 t / ha. Recommended for obtaining greens and bulbs in open and protected ground.
Miner... A mid-season variety with a semi-sharp taste for biennial cultivation. The bulb is round, weighing 16-18 g. There are 5-7 bulbs in the nest. Dry bulb scales are yellow. Productivity 1.6 kg / sq.m.
Gold Sun Sun) Dutch variety. The bulbs are round in shape. The cover scales are rich brown or red-red, which is why this variety got its name - "Red Sun". The pulp is white, with light pinkish blotches, juicy, somewhat more tender than that of onions with a deeper taste. The nest has an average of 8 bulbs.
Mushroom basket - medium early, high-yielding variety. The bulbs are round, or round-flat, weighing 50-60 gr. The color of the scales is pink-brown, juicy - pink, sweet-sharp. The feather is gentle, high-vitamin. Forms large nests similar to mushroom families.
Guran... Mid-season semi-sharp variety for growing in biennial culture. The bulbs are round, weighing 26 g. Dry scales are light brown with a grayish tinge. Forms 4-5 bulbs in the nest. Productivity 1.7 kg / sq.m.
Golden Gourmet Gurme) England is a medium-early, semi-acute, drought-resistant, long-term (up to 14 months), high-yielding variety. The bulb is oval-elongated, up to 7 cm long, dense, of 3-4 primordia. With fine scales and delicate taste. Dry scales are thin, brown, juicy - yellow, sweetish, delicate taste, slightly pungent. Bulb weight in one nest - 100-150 g, one onion - 30-70 g.
Golden - family, multi-primordial, mid-season variety, 90-100 days. Bulbs weighing 20-30 grams, round-flat, bright yellow-golden, juicy white scales. The taste is sweet and spicy. The greens are tender, vitamin, in large quantities.
White asterisk - one of the earliest ripening varieties. Bulbs are round or round-flat, bright white in color, weighing 50-70 g, pungent in taste. The variety is drought-resistant, high-yielding, medicinal. Differs in high frost resistance, feather is long, narrow, tender, with a high content of vitamins and microelements.
Firebird... A mid-season semi-sharp variety with a vegetation period of 49-52 days. The yield of turnip is 12.0 t / ha, green leaves - 21.6 t / ha. The bulbs are round-flat, weighing 25-30 g. The dry scales are yellow-brown.
Germor... French variety. It is a small and ovoid golden bulb, the flesh of which has a pleasant pale pink hue. Each nest contains approximately 8 bulbs.
Emerald... An early ripe semi-sharp variety. The bulb is rounded, weighing 18-22 g. Dry brown scales with a pink tint, juicy - white. There are 3-4 bulbs in the nest. The yield of the turnip is 1.2-1.4 kg / m.Stored up to 10 months. Recommended for biennial crops.
Cascade... Included in the State Register for the Russian Federation for garden plots, household and small farms. Recommended for growing in biennial culture from seedlings. Early ripe. The bulb is broadly ovate, dense, weighing 34-36 g. Dry pink scales, 3-4 in number, juicy scales are white, with a pink tint, multi-pronged. The taste is spicy. Dry matter content 15.1%, total sugar 11.5%. The marketable yield of a turnip is 1.7 kg / sq.m. Ripening of onions before harvesting is 90%, after ripening - 100%. Stored for 7 months. The value of the variety: early maturity, high ripeness and keeping quality.
Knyazhich. The bulbs are completely regular, oblong-rounded. Outside, their color is brownish-pink, but inside it is very delicate in taste, super-pink flesh. There are usually 8 to 10 bulbs in the nest, each weighing up to 75g. Bountiful annual harvest of healthy, shelf-stable, calibrated bulbs
Koinarsky... The variety is mid-season, semi-sharp. The growing season is 83 days. In the nest, 2-4 bulbs of round-flat and round-oval shape, weighing about 26 g, are formed. The color of dry scales is brownish-pink, juicy - pale lilac with a white tint. The yield of turnip onions is about 25 t / ha, green feathers - 25 t / ha. The variety is recommended for the West Siberian region of Russia.
Corundum - mid-season variety (100 days), bulbs are large, with an average weight of 80-160 g, yellow-brown in color, with a purple tint. The shape of the bulbs is an oblong bottle with a wide bottom and a narrow tail, dense, multi-sharpened, the color of juicy scales is pink-purple, sweet-sharp. Excellent storage until new harvest
Sturdy... Medium late peninsular variety with a vegetation period of 52-69 days. The bulbs are oval in shape, with pink dry scales. In the nest there are 4 to 7 bulbs weighing 23-52 g. Productivity 12.7-21.4 t / ha. The keeping quality of the variety is high. Resistant to shooters and rot. Suitable for winter planting. Recommended for all cultivation zones. culture.
Kuban yellow D-332 ... The variety is mid-season, with a growing season of about 3 months, semi-sharp. The growing season is 80-96 days. In the nest there are 3-4 round and round-flat bulbs weighing 25-30 g. The yield is up to 3 kg per 1 square meter of usable area each. The color of dry scales is yellow-brown, juicy - white or greenish. The yield of turnip onions is 15-27 t / ha. Drought tolerant. Recommended for the Lower Volga region of Russia.
Kuban pink - mid-season variety, 90-95 days. The bulbs are round-lily-shaped, weighing up to 70 gr. Form 5-6 multi-bud bulbs in the nest. The cut scales are yellow-pink in color, the juicy scales are pink, sweet, with a barely noticeable sharpness.
Kuban - early ripe, 80-90 days, medium-sized bulbs, round-elongated, brown-violet in color, juicy white scales, sweet-spicy taste. The rosette of leaves is compact, erect. Weighing up to 80 gr. The variety is resistant to low temperatures and lack of moisture in the soil.
Kuban "Kvochka" - the most productive, large-fruited, Kuban, old, Cossack variety. Forms a rather large nest of up to 15 pieces, bulbs weighing 100 grams, round or round-flat. The color of dry scales is yellow-brown-burgundy, juicy - white-pink, the taste is sweet-spicy. Stored up to 8 months, multiplies quickly.
Kuban "Kvochka" yellow - mid-season, 70-85 days, large-fruited variety. Possesses very valuable and rare properties. In the nest, it forms 5-10 bulbs, elongated-oval-flat, weighing up to 120 g. The color of the cut scales is brown-yellow, juicy - yellow-milky, sweet-spicy, delicate taste. Forms a powerful feather, up to 30 cm high, delicate, thin, tasty
Kuban "Kvochka" red - high-yielding, mid-season, 90-100 days, variety. The bulbs are round-flat-elongated. The cutaneous scales are brown-red, multi-bulbous. Juicy - purple-white, sweet-spicy, weighing up to 100 grams. The rosette of leaves is spreading, up to 30 cm high. The feather is gentle, high-vitamin. Reproduces rapidly
Kuban "Kvochka" purple - similar to the previous one, only the bulbs are red-purple, inside (juicy scales) are white-purple, sweet-sharp. The pulp is semi-friable, not dense, tender, very tasty. Weighing up to 100 gr. Forms a large nest and many tasty feathers.
Water lily - early ripe 80-90 days, water lily bulbs, bottle-shaped, weighing up to 70 g, forms 4-5 bulbs in the nest. The color of the outer scales is brown-yellow, juicy - light pink, dense, slightly sweet-spicy on the palate.
Grasshopper - early maturing, 75-85 days, interesting, high-yielding variety. The bulb is round-flat-elongated. The cut scales are lilac-red, juicy - lilac-white, dense, sweet-sharp. Forms a large nest. Mass of 1 onion up to 70 gr, nests up to 220 gr. Excellent storage until the next harvest. The feather is gentle, with a pleasant onion aroma
Kunak- variety of selection KNIIOKH, mid-season, vegetation period 90-100 days. The color of dry scales is yellow, with a brown tinge, the taste is pungent, the bulbs are elongated-rounded, weighing 35-55 g, dense, juicy scales are pink-purple, forms a large nest, stored for up to 15 months. The total yield of leaves is at least 3 kg / sq. m, and the mass of the bulbs reaches 2.6 kg / sq. m.
Kushchevka Kharkiv. A medium-sharp, early ripening variety of shallots with a growing season of 2 months. Low yield - up to 1.5 kg per 1 sq. M of plantings. The bulbs are elongated, weighing about 25 g. The outer dry scales are brownish-lilac, the inner ones are very juicy, of a pale purple hue. The variety is well stored, used for making salads and canning.
Marneulsky (Bargalinsky) is a late-ripening variety. Distributed in Georgia. Elongated oval bulbs, weighing 50-90 gr. The color of dry scales is pink-yellow, the inner juicy ones are white. There are usually 4-6 bulbs in the nest, the variety is very productive. Excellent storage for up to 12 months. Type sweet variety (Pokhlebkin)
Masha - selection V. Brizhan. Early ripe, 70-80 days. The bulb is rounded-oblong, up to 7 cm. The cut scales are red, juicy - lilac, dense, sweet, of excellent taste. Weighing up to 80 gr. Frost-resistant, high-yielding variety, can be stored up to 12 months
Offseason 77... Differs in the ability to give a high yield of green onions per feather in October-January. Medium resistant to downy mildew.
Nikolaevsky long - early maturing, 60-70 days. Elongated bulbs, up to 10 cm long, sit in a nest of 15 pieces. Forms a large nest. The color of dry scales is yellow-brown, juicy - yellow-pink-white, delicate, sweet-spicy. Mass of 1 onion 50 gr, nests up to 200 gr. Excellent storage until the next harvest. The rosette of leaves is compact, erect. The feather is green, tender, very tasty. It multiplies rapidly.
Pesandor... French variety: Early ripening, with a special taste - softer and sweeter than regular onions - ideal for making salads and sauces. The bulb is oblong, the flesh is bright purple. Each set can produce up to about 20 onions; for sowing next year, select the largest "cloves" from the nest.
Pink pearl - medium early (60-70 days), large-fruited, high-yielding variety. In the nest, forms 5-10 bulbs, rounded-elongated, weighing up to 100 grams. The color of the cut scales is pink, the juicy ones are white-pink, dense, with a sweet-spicy taste. The variety is prolific and multiplies rapidly. Forms a powerful, vitamin, tasty feather, up to 35 cm high.
Sante - high-yielding, early maturing, 50-68 days, variety. The bulbs are round-flat. Covering scales are lilac-red, juicy - lilac-pink, dense, sweet-sharp. Mass of 1 onion 30-40 gr. Forms a compact nest of 5-8 bulbs. The feather is thin, delicate, vitamin, tasty
Family... An early maturing variety with a semi-sharp taste. The bulb is rounded, weighing 18-22 g. Dry scales are yellow-brown with a violet tinge, juicy - white. 3-4 bulbs are formed in the nest. Diseases are not affected. Recommended for biennial crops.
Earring... A medium-early ripening hybrid, very productive. It exceeds the standard for the yield of turnips by 29%, green onions by 1.5-2 times. The growing season is up to 58 days. The bulbs are round, yellow, of semi-sharp taste, weighing 21-43 g. Forms 4-10 bulbs in the nest. The variety is suitable for mechanical harvesting, low-lying, resistant to shooting and rotting. For all areas of cultivation.
Siberian amber... A medium late semi-sharp variety with a growing season of 55-59 days. For cultivation in household plots in a biennial culture. Productivity is 20.3 t / ha. Productivity of green leaves 29.6 t / ha, early greenery 11.6 t / ha. The bulbs are round-flat with a yellow-bronze sheen, weighing 28-30 g. There are 6-7 bulbs in the nest. Recommended for all cultivation zones.
SIR-7... Early maturing, lying, productive variety with a vegetation period of 53-71 days. There are 4-7 bulbs in the nest, each weighing 24-32 g. Spicy bulbs. The yield of turnip onions is 170-280, green onions - 200-400 c / ha. The variety is suitable for obtaining early turnip, green onions in open and protected ground. Has good keeping quality. Reproduces vegetatively.
Snowball... An early ripe variety with spicy bulbs. The bulb is ovoid, weighing up to 32 g. Dry and juicy white scales. The yield of a turnip is 1.9 kg / sq.m. Stored for 7 months.
Shrike - the bulb is elongated up to 10 cm, with a diameter of 2-3 cm or more, forms a large nest in which up to 5-6 bulbs sit, sometimes more, scales are light pink-purple, the pulp is light purple, juicy, delicate in taste, bittersweet. It multiplies quickly, the feather is delicate, thin, tasty
Sophocles... Medium early semi-sharp variety, 59 days pass before the leaves lodge. A very productive variety (206 c / ha of turnip onions). Dry scales are brown with a reddish tint, juicy - pale purple. In the nest there are 4 to 8 rounded bulbs weighing 25 to 50 g. The variety is suitable for obtaining turnip and green onions in open and protected ground, for drying. Lodging, resistant to fusarium rots and thrips.
Sprint... Siberian Research Institute of Plant Production and Breeding. An early ripe variety with a growing season of 40-67 days. In the nest there are from 4 to 10 bulbs weighing up to 40 g. The bulb is round with a run up and down, dense, weight 20-25 g. The taste is spicy. The color of the outer scales is light yellow with a light pink tint. Juicy scales are white with a greenish tinge. It is intended for obtaining mature bulbs in the early stages and for growing green onions in the open field and in greenhouses. Productivity of bulbs 200-290, greenery - 350-500 centners / ha. The variety is resistant to peronosporosis, reproduces vegetatively. Variety value: early maturity, high marketable yield, excellent taste. Recommended for the Volga-Vyatka, North Caucasian, Ural, West Siberian and East Siberian regions of Russia.
Old Believer - old, Siberian, Cossack variety, medium ripening. Medium-sized bulbs up to 50 - 70 gr., Forms a large nest containing 6-9 bulbs. The bulbs are oval-elongated, dense, the integumentary scales are yellow-bronze-brown, juicy - white with a pinkish tinge, the taste is sweet-spicy. It multiplies quickly and can be stored well for up to 8 months. The feather is gentle, with a pleasant onion aroma
Uralsky 40... Mid-season semi-sharp variety. The growing season is up to 58 days. Forms elongated oval bulbs with dry yellow scales. The nest consists of 3-4 bulbs weighing up to 59 g each, sometimes up to 120 g. The yield of bulbs is from 14.6 to 23.8 t / ha. The variety is lax, resistant to shooting, moderately affected by bulb rot. Designed for growing turnip onions. Recommended for all cultivation areas.
Ural purple... A medium late semi-sharp variety for growing turnip onions. Productivity up to 164 kg / ha. The color of dry scales is reddish-violet. The mass of flattened bulbs is up to 58 g. The variety is resistant to shooting and rot, propagates vegetatively. Recommended for all areas of cultivation.
Ural red. The bulbs are round-flat, deep burgundy red. Bulb weight - up to 70g. 5-9 bulbs are formed in the nest. The taste is semi-sharp. This new variety is distinguished by a stable annual yield, high marketability of beautiful bulbs, resistance to shooting and long shelf life of bulbs until the next harvest.
Chapaevsky... Voronezh Vegetable Experimental Station VNIIO. The variety is mid-season, universal use, semi-sharp taste. The growing season is 66 days. Forms 3-8 bulbs in the nest. Bulbs are round or round-flat, weighing 39-41 g. The color of dry scales is light purple with a pink tint, juicy - light purple. The yield of turnip onions is 14.4-20.4 t / ha. The variety is dormant, suitable for mechanized harvesting, slightly affected by peronosporosis. Recommended for growing in the Central Black Earth Region of Russia.
Zebrune. This variety is also known as "Cuisse de Poulet du Poitou" (Poitou Chicken Thighs) or Banana Shallots. Early maturing, high-yielding, interesting variety. The plant is powerful, many-leaved. The bulbs are beautiful, oval-elongated (10-13 cm in length), weighing up to 100 grams. Dry scales - red-lilac, juicy - violet-pink, juicy, sweet, with a delicate taste, slightly spicy. The variety is good for growing onions and green feathers. Stably yielded, more disease resistant. This hereditary variety grows larger than average. We are dearly loved by chefs for the ease of cleaning and bright taste.

Selection of varieties. From various sources.
The best varieties according to various sources:
White asterisk - unsurpassed in keeping quality grade
Kushchevka Kharkiv - early ripening with large bulbs, multi-bud variety
Belozerets-94 - an early-ripe bottle-shaped stubborn variety
Uralsky-40 - an early elongated red variety
White Queen - Ivory, productive, medicinal variety
Kuban is a dense, large-fruited, elongated, long-stored variety
Kubansky Kvochka - multi-primordial, lying, with beautiful pink-red bulbs
Shrike - ultra early maturing with long purple bulbs, drought tolerant variety
Starorusskiy is a sedimentary variety with large red-violet bulbs of a rather large size
Old Believer - long-stored, high-yielding with beautiful, rounded, large bulbs.

Varieties for the southern regions... Recommended drought-resistant peninsular varieties "Kunak", "Kushchevka Kharkovskaya", "Zvezdochka", "Russian violet", "Zaporozhye" (acute), Kubansky yellow "(semi-sweet)," Vansky "and" Bargalinsky "(sweet varieties).
Varieties for Central and Siberia... Albik, Airat, Afonya, Belozerets, Bonilla F1, Garant, Miner, Guran, Dimon, Firebird, Star, Emerald, Cascade, Off-season, Krepysh, Seriozhka, Siberian yellow, SIR-7, Sophocles, Sprint, Siberian amber, Siberian , Snowball, Octopus, Ural 40, Ural purple.
Varieties for cold climatic zones of Siberia, the North and the Far East... The varieties must be early maturing, otherwise the bulbs will not have time to ripen during the season. For example, "Siberian Yellow", "Sprint", "Sir-7".
Varieties for winter planting. From the varieties of the Siberian Research Institute of Plant Production and Breeding (SibNIIRS): Siberian yellow, SIR-7, Ryzhik, Sophokl, Serezhka, Krepysh, Albik, Garant.


Basic requirements for growing onions

In this section, we will consider the general conditions that must be met when growing this plant. Although onions are not the most picky culture, they still require attention to themselves.

It is important for him that the soil in the beds is loose and nutritious. It is best to set aside an open, well-lit area for planting onions, since the plant reacts sharply to the intensity and duration of lighting. The length of daylight hours is one of the important conditions for growing it.

Onions feel great and grows well with low air humidity. But at the same time, the soil should be moderately moist.Watering the onion is important at a time when there is a massive regrowth of feathers and the formation of bulbs, and already at the end of the growing season, excessive moisture is not welcome, as it will delay the ripening of the onion and reduce its keeping quality.

In those areas where groundwater comes close to the surface, it is better not to plant onions.

He also does not like weeds very much, so planting onions should be weeded regularly.

The onion beds are best done in those places of our summer cottage where cucumbers, cabbage, tomatoes, potatoes grew in the previous season - those crops for which we usually apply large doses of organic fertilizers.

In no case should you plant onions on a plot that was occupied by any of the types of onions, since: firstly, various pathogenic bacteria and other microorganisms can remain in the ground, as well as those pests that "specialize" in this culture, and secondly , the soil in these places is already depleted in those nutrients that are necessary for the growth of onion plants.

And it is also not advisable to plant onions after such plants as: garlic, carrots. In the same place, onions can be planted not earlier than after 3 years, and best of all after 5 years.

Onions do not like to grow on acidic soils, because plants in this case absorb nutrition much worse and are more often affected by such a formidable disease as downy mildew (peronosporosis). Having got sick, the plant weakens and can no longer fully fight pests.


Watch the video: Harvesting and Storing Onions


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