Growing delphiniums: culture features, sowing


Delphiniums - blue eyes of summer

July is the top of summer, the sun is the brightest and hottest, the sky is deep blue, and in the gardens, like a reflection of heavenly blue, the blue eyes of delphinium flowers attract the eye.

Blue and blue bells bloom here - sprawling, Carpathian, peach-leaved, broad-leaved and others; meadow and mountain cornflowers, pansies - from pale blue to almost black velvet flower-portraits, irresistibly charming. Blue is the color of calmness, tranquility, pleasant coolness ...

Perhaps the brightest blues and blues give the garden the magnificent Delphiniums, members of the Buttercup family. The plant got its name in ancient Greece, it is associated with the similarity of flower buds and the shape of the body of a brown dolphin. The genus has more than 350 species from Europe, Asia, Africa and North America. About ten of them are grown in culture, but most cultivated delphiniums are hybrids obtained from crossing wild-growing species.


Species plants are interesting for their unusual color of flowers, while their inflorescences, as a rule, are less decorative, consist of a small number of flowers with a diameter of 3-5 cm. Many of the species were introduced into culture in the middle of the 18th century. For example, the flowers of the red delphinium have red flowers, the bare-stemmed ones - red or orange, the half-bearded ones - bright yellow. Unfortunately, these species do not winter with us, but they can be grown like dahlias, digging rhizomes in the fall and storing them in a basement or other cold place.

Features of delphiniums

In modern varieties of the cultural delphinium, the length of the vertical inflorescence is at least 120 cm with a total plant height of up to 200 cm (there are also medium-high varieties with a height of 120-160 cm and low ones - no more than 120 cm).

Inflorescence - few or many-flowered (up to 80 flowers!) Brush or panicle. Flowers with a diameter of more than 6 cm are considered large, medium - 5-6 cm, small - less than 5 cm. The most appreciated varieties are with semi-double disc-shaped and star-shaped, as well as double flowers.

A regular semi-double flower consists of five petal-shaped colored sepals, five true small petals - nectaries and staminodes. The upper sepal is continued into the original hollow funnel-shaped spur; 24-32 stamens adorn the flower. When describing varieties, petals (nectaries and staminodes) are usually called eyes, they differ in shape and color. The sepals and petals are broad, with sharp or blunt tips; narrow and long, like that of an aster, and also reminiscent of gelichrisum, daffodils.

The main color of the flowers is blue and blue, but blue is less common in varieties with semi-double and double flowers. Double color is often observed: in dark blue sepals, petals are light purple, lilac; the white peephole is spectacular in deep purple flowers. The eye color ranges from pure white through yellow and brown to amber black.

Interestingly, the color of flowers depends to a large extent on the pH of the cell sap and air temperature. It has been noticed that blue and purple tones in the middle of summer, with the onset of colder days, acquire other shades, which often complicates the identification of varieties.

The pigment delphinidin, present in the petals of even white flowers, can cause bluish and purple hues when the weather changes. It has not yet been possible to create delphinium varieties with semi-double flowers, pyramidal inflorescences with red and yellow flowers, although wild plants have them.

By the timing of flowering, the varieties of perennial delphinium are early (flowering in early and mid-June), medium (at the end of June) and late (mid-July).

Depending on weather conditions, delphiniums bloom for 20-30 days. Inflorescences with semi-double flowers are well cut. If, after flowering, the peduncles are cut off, then after a month's pause in August - October, secondary flowering occurs, but less abundant, with small inflorescences. When sowing seeds in March, the flowering of delphinium seedlings occurs in 4 months - in July - August. In the south, the delphinium can bloom up to three times a year if the faded shoots are cut off, but the plants are quickly depleted and may die in three years.

The delphinium fruit consists of 3-5 multi-seeded leaflets filled with triangular or rounded seeds with "wings" or a membranous surface. When sown in spring without prior stratification, the seeds germinate within 8-10 days. Self-seeding of a delphinium is often in the garden, seedlings are obtained by hybrids from free pollination, since the delphinium is cross-pollinated (spatial isolation to preserve varietal traits should be at least 100 m).

According to some features, it is possible to determine the color of future flowers at the stage of seedlings. For example, the seedlings of white-flowered varieties have a green hypocotyl knee; in dark-colored flowers, the stem will be purple or reddish. Diving young plants, you can immediately group them according to the color of the flowers.

According to the methods of reproduction and genetic characteristics, the cultivars of the cultural delphinium are divided into five groups. It is important to know that the group of Pacific hybrids (varieties Blue Jay, Black Knight, Galahad, King Arthur) during seed propagation, unlike others, retains semi-doubleness and color of flowers. Marfinsky domestic hybrids only in conditions of spatial isolation repeat varietal characteristics in seed progeny. The healthiest and most resilient plants are known to come from seeds. Self-seeding from seeds fallen to the ground successfully hibernates next to the mother plant without shelter.


Sev delphiniums

You can sow seeds at any time, including fresh ones, as well as before winter.

The best results are obtained when sowing in March, sprinkling the seeds with a layer of soil no more than 3 mm (light delays germination, and deeper sowing significantly reduces germination) and maintaining a temperature of + 12 ... 15 ° С. Temperatures above 20 ° C lead to a decrease in germination. Sow thickly, cover the crops with paper or film until shoots appear, then the seedlings dive in time 3-4 cm apart.

Grown and hardened seedlings are planted in open ground in early May, adding 1 teaspoon of granules of long-acting complex fertilizer AVA to the hole. If it is not possible to apply a long-term (2-3 years) active fertilizer, then a month after planting, the seedlings are fed with full fertilizer, repeating feeding every two weeks (Kemira-wagon, 20-30 g, 50-80 g per m²). Pinching the tops by 2/3 promotes better root development. It is better to leave flowers in inflorescences until the seeds ripen, as this inhibits the growth of renewal buds unwanted in young plants. For the winter, seedlings are covered with spruce branches.

The main root, inherent in delphinium seedlings, does not develop further, but many adventitious roots are formed. Over time, a short rhizome develops, from which numerous thin roots grow, growing in a bunch. A feature of the delphinium is the presence of a hollow part of the stems, which is formed as a result of the gradual withering away of old stems. The thicker the stems, the more significant destruction occurs in the underground part of the plants. Therefore, delphiniums are usually divided and rejuvenated after 2-3 years of growing season, then they may simply not survive in winter.

Read the next part. Growing delphiniums: reproduction and care →

Elena Olegovna (Marasanova) Kuzmina
Photo by the author


General description of the Delphinium plant

Delphinium itself is a perennial herb (although annual varieties are also found), reaching a height of up to 3 m. Its features are manifested both in the structure of the flower and in the form of leaves.

When closed, the inflorescence looks like a dolphin, from which this name came. The flower structure consists of 5 sepals. On the top is a spur - a long outgrowth, empty inside, in which nectar accumulates. Flowering usually occurs in June, less often in July and lasts 1-2 months. During this period, you can enjoy beautiful blue, blue or purple flowers with a pleasant aroma.

Delphinium leaves are arranged in turn on a powerful tall stem. They are slightly pubescent and are usually divided by deep sections into pointed or serrated lobules.

The fruits of the delphinium are leaflets. And the shape of the root system is brush or bundle-shaped without the main root in the middle.


Growing a delphinium from seeds

  • Purchased seeds are often not very similar. It's all about the difficult conditions of their storage. Experiments carried out in the states at the beginning of the 19th century showed that at a temperature of -15 degrees in well-closed vessels delphinium seeds retain germination even after 15 years of storage, and when stored in paper bags at room temperature, they lose their germination after 10 months.

  • Our seed companies usually take perennial seeds with a shelf life of 3 years. By reading the expiration date on the bag, you can imagine the year of the potential crop and calculate how many have already been stored. Seeds are much better stored in well-sealed aluminum foil bags. The best quality seeds are those collected in their own garden or from friends and stored in glass jars in the refrigerator or on the balcony.
  • It is important to sow the seeds correctly. It is better to do this at the end of March - April, but you can also do it in May. Prepare the boxes, fill them with nutritious soil with peat and sand, level and spill well. Scatter seeds evenly or sow in rows. The sowing density directly affects their germination, the optimal one is sowing 2 seeds per 1 sq. cm. Then, through a fine strainer, pour the earth about 3 mm thick on top. With deeper sowing, germination is delayed for a long time or does not occur at all. Seeds that are exposed to light also germinate very poorly. Pour the soil again from a small watering can and sieve. Cover everything with newspaper, burlap or a piece of nonwoven fabric and place in a room with a temperature of about 12 degrees. Seedlings should appear on the 8th day. If they did not appear 3 weeks after sowing, this means that the seeds were not suitable or you were mistaken with a difficult sowing technology.

It is difficult to grow a delphinium, but this plant will truly decorate your green area in the garden or at home. Delphinium flower beds look gorgeous! To cultivate a plant, you need to be patient and have special knowledge. In this case, you will definitely be able to grow a magnificent flower!

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GARDEN, FLOWER AND GARDEN. Growing beans, beans and peas

Although growing beans not as popular as growing peas or beans. But you should still pay attention to this vegetable garden rich in protein.

Beans, like peas, are undemanding to heat, so they can be planted early, along with or immediately after peas. They are planted with ribbons in two or three lines. Before planting the beans, some gardeners soak the seeds in water for 24 hours.

The distance between the rows should be 30 cm and in a row up to 20 cm between the plants. The seeding depth is 7cm for light soils and 4cm for heavy soils. For a garden bed of 10m2 large seeds of beans go up to 200g, and small up to 120g.

It is worth noting that when growing beans, you do not need to spare water, beans are very fond of moisture. As an experiment, add about one third of the beans to a glass. Pour water over the seeds so that it slightly covers the top layer of the beans. Cover the glass to prevent moisture from evaporating. After two days, you will find that there is no water left in the glass at all, or just a little bit at the bottom of the glass. The beans, after absorbing all the water, will increase in size and will take up more than half a glass.

Bean care consists of weed control and loosening of row spacings. The first time the earth is loosened after the second leaf has appeared, and then 2 - 3 loosenings are still needed, depending on the formation of a crust. In the central and northern regions of Russia, simultaneously with the second loosening, you can slightly huddle the plant.

Harvesting unripe beans should be started at the end of June every 10 days. When the last crop of pods is harvested in the last days of July (if the beans were planted early), it is necessary to cut the stems, and after 2 - 3 weeks other shoots will grow, and in the second decade of September a second crop of young beans will be obtained.

Beans also good grow, compacting the planting of potatoes, sowing seeds in the row of potatoes, in the hole with the potatoes or between the holes, but always in the same row with the potatoes.

The value of the beans is that they are rich in protein and are stored dry all winter. Take note.

Growing beans, like all legumes, is popular among gardeners. Sometimes, due to its nutritional value, beans are called garden meat.

And for good reason, because the nutritional value of beans is very high.

Of the whole family of legumes, beans are the most thermophilic plant. Her love for warmth can be compared to cucumbers.

Bean seeds begin to hatch at a ground temperature of 9 degrees Celsius. Bean sprouts are afraid of even minor frosts, so you need to sow beans so that they sprout after frost.

In the central regions of Russia, the most optimal time for planting beans is between the last decade of May and the first decade of June.

The beans are planted in rows every 40 cm, but it will be better if you plant them with ribbons in 2 - 3 lines every 25 cm. In a row, the distance between shoots is up to 12 cm.

Seeds are sealed to a depth of 4 cm. It is not necessary to plant deeper, as in cold soil the seeds can rot. Up to 120g of seeds are consumed per 10m2.

Bean care consists of weed control, a little hilling and loosening of the row spacings. Weed control and loosening can be combined in one procedure.

If the beans are curly, then you can install a support or pull the twine. After a week - one and a half after the ovary is formed - the beans can be harvested on a shoulder blade.

The collection is carried out every five days. Before the onset of frost, beans can be harvested up to eight times, and more in the southern regions. Beans are of climbing and bush varieties. Curly beans are mostly late ripening

Depending on the structure of the bean, the varieties are: shelling, semi-sugar, sugar. Sugar varieties are divided into fiber-free and fiber-free beans. The period of growth and development of beans from planting to ripening is 80 - 120 days, depending on the variety, from planting to collection on a shoulder, 50 - 60 days.

As growing beans, like growing peas, for gardeners is not a very laborious and costly business, I would like to advise gardeners to grow these crops for their own pleasure and benefit.

Growing peas in Russia it has been widespread for a long time. Soups, stews, cereals were prepared from it, and used as a filling for pies.

Peas have been one of the main crops in our country for a long time.

This plant of the legume family tolerates low temperatures well. Its seedlings can withstand a short drop in temperature to three degrees below zero. Peas must be sown very early, as their seeds begin to germinate at 2 degrees Celsius.

In central Russia, you can start sowing in the second decade of April. To accelerate the germination of peas, its seeds can be soaked in water for 2-3 days. You can also keep the peas wrapped in moistened cotton wool, gauze or any other fabric. The main thing is moisture.

Seeding is done to a depth of 4 cm.Peas are planted in a garden bed or on a flat surface. When growing peas, the optimal number of rows, both in the garden and on a flat surface, is 4-5. The distance between the rows is 20cm. In a row, pea seeds are planted at a distance of 5 cm from each other. On a garden bed with an area of ​​10 sq.m. requires 150 to 250 grams of seeds.

When shoots appear, it is necessary to weed the weeds in the row and loosen the aisles. If the pea variety is high, then it is necessary to install supports or pull on twine and pegs, otherwise some of the plants may simply die. It should be remembered that the absence of backwaters significantly reduces the yield.

Crop blades begin to harvest a week and a half after flowering. The largest amount of sugar is found in peas or in their shells at a young age.

A spatula or pods of green peas are harvested every three days. Old pods must be plucked from the plant, without leaving them on the lash, so that the formation of new pods is not delayed.

To dramatically increase the yield of peas, you need to water it during fruiting, since peas are a moisture-loving plant, however, like all legumes. Peas bear fruit for an average of three to four weeks, depending on weather conditions.

Dry weather is not favorable for fruiting and therefore the fruiting period is shorter, in wet weather the fruiting is longer.

Growing peas is of interest both for food purposes and for medicinal purposes. It is used as a decoction to treat kidney stones, and pea flour helps with boils and boils.


Varieties and hybrids

Currently, winter rapeseed is represented by a large number of varieties and their hybrids. Below is a description of the most popular of them.

Hardy F1

Winter rapeseed. A frost-resistant, high-yielding hybrid with medium late ripening. Suitable for late sowing and late harvesting. The growing season is 300 days. Plant height - up to 1.5 m. Does not crumble. Lodging is not typical for him. Resistant to pests and diseases, especially to bacteriosis, phomosis, sclerotinosis, black leg. The oil content in the seeds is 40-45%. Productivity - up to 60 kg / ha.

Nelson F1

Winter rapeseed. Medium early hybrid with a high level of cold resistance. Can produce high yields. It has a good oil content. Grows well in regions with good moisture. Plant height - up to 1.7 m. Productivity - up to 60 kg / ha.

Triangel F1

Winter mid-early hybrid. The pods are of medium size. The oil content in the seeds is 40-45%. Differs in high winter hardiness. The variety is resistant to shedding and lodging. Gives good yields in various soil and climatic conditions. Not afraid of drought. Productivity - 45-55 kg / ha.

Adriana

Medium early grade. Plants are medium-sized, pods are large. High oil content - up to 58%. The growing season is 264 days. Plant height - 1.2 m. Not prone to lodging. Resistant to mold, sclerotinous rot, foma. Productivity - up to 45 kg / ha.


Garden marjoram: distinctive features of the plant

Translated from Arabic, the name of the plant is “incomparable”. Originally, marjoram is native to the Mediterranean and South Africa, where it can be found growing in the wild. Garden marjoram is a perennial crop, but its southern origin dictates serious temperature requirements, the Russian winter marjoram is not strong enough. Therefore, it is usually grown as an annual plant.

As a seasoning, not only leaves are used, but also marjoram flowers. In ancient times, the marjoram flower was considered magical; a love potion was prepared on its basis. The inflorescence can be white, pink or purple, small flowers, very fragrant, collected like a shield. The leaves of garden marjoram are petiolate, have an oblong ovoid shape, somewhat reminiscent of mint leaves. Marjoram can grow up to 60 cm in height.


It is recommended to grow root celery using the seedling method, as it has the longest growing season. In this regard, its seeds are planted in the 1st or 2nd decade of February. For this, peat, turf soil, humus and sand are mixed (6: 2: 2: 1). Add 20 g of urea and 200 ml of furnace ash to the soil.

Pour plenty of water over the prepared soil. Wait until it is absorbed, then you can scatter the seeds (they do not need to be buried). Then close the box with the sown seeds with polyethylene and store at room temperature.

Until the first shoots sprout, it is necessary to periodically spray the seeds with a weak solution of potassium permanganate. Water for irrigation should be taken only settled. When growing seedlings, remember that she needs a double pick. In this case, each time you need to shorten the main root by a third.

For the entire time of growing seedlings, it is necessary to water the soil with trichodermin 1 time. It will help future plants to resist various diseases. When shoots have appeared, it is necessary to lower the temperature to 14 degrees for a couple of days. After the first few true leaves appear, the seedlings must be thinned so that the distance between them is at least 5 cm, or transplant root celery in pots.

By mid-August, organic matter leaves the leaves and accumulates in root crops. For larger celery roots, do not cut the leaves during the summer. A few weeks before harvesting, tear off the side leaves and shoots, and also partially rake off the soil.

Celery care consists of loosening row spacings, weeding, and regular watering. Be careful not to crust the soil or the plant may get sick. Mulching the soil is a good helper in the care of celery. It will help get rid of regular weeding, loosening of row spacings and will not allow a crust to form on the soil. Celery does not need hilling, otherwise it can provoke the formation of lateral roots and disfigurement of root crops. Watering is provided to the plant in moderation: the soil should be moist, but not wet.


Watch the video: Growing DELPHINIUMS from seed part 2


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