Beans (Phaseolus) are a type genus of the Legume family. It unites about 90 species that are naturally found in warm regions of both hemispheres. The Greek name phaseolus in translation means "canoe, boat", most likely this is due to the fact that the beans of this plant are outwardly somewhat similar to a boat. Bernardino de Sahagun, a missionary and Spanish Franciscan monk who lived and worked in Mexico in the 16th century, described Aztec evidence of the variety and properties of beans in his General History of New Spain. This plant is native to Latin America. This culture came to the territory of Russia from Turkey and France in the 16th century, at first it was grown only as an ornamental plant. Today, among gardeners, fiery-red or multi-flowered beans (Phaseolus coccineus) are quite popular, the bushes are decorated with flowers of a fiery color, this plant is also called "Turkish beans". As a garden crop, beans began to be grown in the 18th century. Today, common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) are very common among gardeners, this species has many varieties and varieties, it is grown as seeds and fruits. Beans are one of the top 10 healthiest vegetable crops. It is unpretentious, so it is very easy to grow it in open soil. However, in order to get a rich harvest, you need to know some features.
Vegetable bean is an erect or climbing herbaceous perennial or annual plant. In pinnate leaf plates, each of the lobes has stipules. The flowers are part of the racemose inflorescences, they form in the axils. The fruits are bivalve beans, they contain large seeds, they are separated from each other by spongy incomplete septa. Each of the beans weighs approximately 1 gram. Experts call this plant "the meat of healthy people", as it is nutritious and contains a large amount of protein, and beans are also very useful. This plant is a short-day crop, it will need no more than 12 hours of light per day in order for the fruits to ripen on time and the yield to be high. The advantage of beans is their self-pollination. In one area, you can grow different varieties of beans, while they will not be pollinated.
GROWING BEANS !!! GREAT WAY !!!
Sowing beans in open ground begins in May, while the ground at a depth of 10 centimeters must necessarily warm up to 12-15 degrees. Also, returnable spring frosts should be left behind. As a rule, this crop begins to be sown during the flowering of the chestnut. Sowing of upright varieties should be carried out 7 days earlier than sowing of climbing bean varieties. Bush beans can be grown as a second crop after the vegetable harvest, which ripens by the first days of July. Sowing beans should be carried out in several stages: once every 1.5 weeks from the second half of May to the first days of July. Peas and beans are often grown near apple trees, as this tree is able to protect legumes from gusts of cold winds.
Before proceeding with sowing, you must first prepare the seeds and soil. To do this, before planting, the seeds need to be sorted out, then they are poured overnight with water to swell. And in the morning, just before sowing, the seed should be immersed in a boric acid solution for five minutes (1 gram of substance for half a bucket of water), this treatment will protect the seeds from most diseases and pests.
This crop is not recommended to be grown on clay soil, as it passes water very slowly, and stagnation of liquid in the soil is harmful to this crop. Such a plant also reacts negatively to soil, which contains a large amount of nitrogen, since it is able to extract this substance on its own from the air.
Well-lit areas with reliable protection from gusts of wind are best suited for growing this crop. The soil should be nutritious, light and permeable, while the groundwater should be very deep, and the pH of the soil should be 6–7. It is also recommended to grow this crop in areas with poor soil, which has not been fertilized for a long time, since it, like all legumes, is a green manure and a good predecessor for various vegetable crops.
The preparation of the site should be done in the autumn. To do this, it is necessary to dig the soil to the depth of the bayonet of the shovel, while adding 2 tbsp. l. dolomite flour, 1 tbsp. double superphosphate, 4 kilograms of compost or humus, 1 tbsp. ammonium nitrate, ½ tbsp. potassium soda or potassium chloride per 1 square meter of soil. Or you can add 30 grams of superphosphate, ½ a bucket of compost or humus, and 20 grams of wood ash per 1 square meter of land. Good predecessors of this crop are: cabbage, tomatoes, potatoes, eggplant, peppers and cucumber. It is not recommended to grow beans in areas where members of the Legumes family were previously grown, for example: peas, lentils, soybeans, peanuts, beans and beans. Such plots can be used for cultivating beans only after 3 or 4 years. Beets, tomatoes, cabbage, carrots, onions and cucumbers can be grown next to beans.
How to plant beans. Beans in the country
Bush varieties are sown to a depth of 50 to 60 mm, while the distance between the bushes should be from 20 to 25 centimeters, and the distance between rows should be about 0.4 meters. When sowing climbing varieties, the distance between plants should be from 25 to 30 centimeters, and the distance between rows is about 0.5 m. 5 or 6 seeds are planted in one hole. After the seedlings appear, only 3 of the strongest should be left in one hole, while the extra ones should be transplanted. The crops must be watered, and then the soil is tamped with the back of the rake. If there is a danger of recurrent spring frosts, then the surface of the garden bed should be covered with a film.
In order for the emerging bean seedlings to be more stable, they must be hilled. Then the bushes will need to be systematically watered, weeded, hilled, fed, loosened the soil surface, and tied the stems to the supports. To make the bushes more branched, and the beans ripen faster, the tips of the shoots must be pinched.
Before bud formation begins, watering should be carried out only when needed (no more than 1 time in 7 days). Watering should be plentiful, but the exact amount of water directly depends on the soil and weather. The soil should be moderately moist.
After the seedlings have 4 or 5 true leaf plates, the bushes need to stop watering. When they bloom, watering should be resumed. Then a gradual increase in the number of irrigations and the water used is carried out, as a result, they need to be doubled. Rainwater is best suited for irrigation, but tap water can also be used for this, but it must first be poured into a large container, where it should stay for at least 24 hours, this will allow it to settle well. When the bed is watered, it is much easier to remove weeds and loosen the soil surface between the rows.
For the first time, the soil surface in the bed is deeply loosened after the height of the seedlings is 70 mm. After half a month, the soil is again not very deeply loosened, while it is necessary to huddle the bushes. Before the rows of beans close, the soil needs to be loosened a third time, while the bushes are spud again.
When the first true leaf plate is formed, the bushes will need superphosphate feeding (for 1 square meter of the plot from 30 to 40 grams). And during the formation of buds, potassium salt should be added to the soil (per 1 square meter of the plot from 10 to 15 grams). During the ripening of the beans, wood ash should be added to the soil. It is better not to use nitrogen-containing fertilizers for feeding this crop. The fact is that beans are able to independently extract nitrogen from the air, and if there is a lot of this element in the soil, this will provoke a strong growth of greenery, which will have an extremely negative effect on the harvest.
Top dressing and hilling of beans.
When planting climbing bean varieties, a support should be installed near the bushes, the height of which should be about 150 centimeters. On the installed supports, you need to pull a rope or wire, while placing it horizontally. Along these ropes, it will be necessary to direct the curly stems of the bushes.
You can grow this culture in nests, for this, after the seedlings appear, they should not be thinned out, they will grow in a lush bush. Near the bush, you need to install a stake from a tree, it is on it that creeping shoots will curl. Then, around the bush, you need to install 3 or 4 guides of two meters in height, then their tops are tied, while the structure should outwardly be similar to an Indian wigwam. The support should not be made of metal or plastic, since the shoots are not able to climb over them.
Most often, bean bushes are injured by a garden and cabbage scoop, and also by a bean weevil. Scoops arrange their egg-laying on the aerial parts of the bush, and after a while larvae appear, which eat flowers, greens and fruits.
A bean weevil is a bug that enters the ground along with the seeds. Such a bug destroys the fruit from the inside.
If you care for such a culture incorrectly or do not follow agrotechnical rules, then it can be affected by bacteriosis, anthracnose or viral mosaic.
The danger of bacteriosis is that it is able to destroy bean bushes, while its pathogens remain viable for many years, and they develop in the soil and in plant debris.
If the bush is affected by anthracnose, then depressed brown spots appear on its surface, their shape can be round or irregular, while the veins on the leaf plates acquire a brown color, the foliage turns yellow and holes appear on it, after which it dies. On the surface of the fruit, specks of pale red, red or brown appear, over time they become sores.
When damaged by a mosaic, necrotic specks form on the surface of the leaf plates, while the veins become discolored.
If the beans are sick with a viral mosaic, then it is no longer possible to cure it, since this disease is considered incurable. For the purpose of prevention, it is necessary to properly care for the beans, while it is necessary to adhere to the rules of crop rotation and not neglect the pre-sowing preparation of seeds.
The defeat of beans with bacteriosis or anthracnose can also be avoided by providing the culture with proper care. If, nevertheless, the bushes get sick, the affected parts or the entire plant are removed from the site and destroyed. Then the bushes and the garden should be sprayed with a solution of Bordeaux mixture (1%). However, it should be borne in mind that it is better to timely carry out preventive treatments of bushes and beds from fungal diseases than to spray the beans with chemicals later. It is necessary to spray the plants and the surface of the soil around them with a solution of Fitosporin, this should be done in spring after the height of the seedlings is from 12 to 15 centimeters, this procedure is repeated after harvesting. If you adhere to preventive measures, as well as observe the rules of crop rotation and agricultural technology, then thanks to this, the bushes will have a very high resistance to all diseases.
To prevent scoops from appearing on the site, in the autumn time the soil must be dug deeply. However, if in the spring they appear in the garden, then the bushes should be sprayed with a solution of Gomelin (0.5%) or Bitoxibacillin (1%), these drugs are bacterial. So that bean weevils do not appear on the garden bed, before sowing, the seed must be sorted out, then it must be soaked to swell, and then the seeds are treated with boric acid.
If you need young beans for food, then harvesting the fruits can be started half a month after the flowers appear, after the size of the fruits reaches the maximum, while they will be very tasty. To cut the pods, you need to use scissors, this procedure is carried out once every two days in the morning, while they should be saturated with night coolness and moisture. Young beans are used to prepare vegetable stews, salads and soups, and they are also served stewed as a side dish for fish and meat dishes. It should be noted that fresh young beans cannot be stored for a long time. In order to extend the shelf life of such beans, they need to be preserved or frozen.
In the case when this crop is grown for grain, the harvest is carried out only once after the fruits are fully ripe and the pods are dry. The shoots must be cut off at the soil surface, then tied in bunches, and then hung down with their tops in a well-ventilated and dry room, for example, in a dry shed or in the attic. Half a month after the seeds are completely ripe and dry, they are husked from the pods, then the beans are stored in glass containers, which are closed with a metal twist lid. Then the containers are removed to a cool place.
The roots of the bushes must be left in the ground, decomposing, they will saturate the earth with nitrogen. To collect seeds, several pods are used, which grow in the lower part of the bush.They need to be thoroughly dried, then the beans are removed from them, they are stored for storage in the refrigerator on a shelf for vegetables, where the air temperature should be 5-6 degrees. The seed remains viable for 10 years.
Beans processing and storage
All varieties of beans intended for cultivation in open soil are classified according to various characteristics. For example, they are divided according to the ripening period:
Varieties are divided according to the shape of the aerial part into curly and bush. They are also divided into 3 groups according to purpose and taste for grain (shelling), asparagus (sugar) and semi-sugar.
Cereal varieties are grown to obtain grains, as the pod has a layer of parchment inside, so they cannot be eaten with the shell. In middle latitudes, such varieties are not cultivated, since they do not have time to ripen, and unripe fruits cannot be eaten. In warm regions, such varieties are cultivated quite successfully. The most popular varieties:
The following varieties are also popular among gardeners: Oran, Varvara, Lilac, Nerussa, Generous, Yin-yang, Pervomayskaya, Geliada, Svetlaya, Belozernaya, Ufimskaya and Palevo-variegated.
In asparagus (sugar or vegetable) varieties, there is no parchment layer inside the pod. In this regard, if desired, the seeds can be eaten with the pod. These varieties, in comparison with other varieties, are the most delicious, and they are very often included in diet menus, as they help to remove excess moisture from the body. The pods can be brown, green, white, or various shades of yellow. The most popular varieties are:
The following varieties are also popular: Winner, Panther, Deer King, Caramel, Fatima and Saksa 615.
In semi-sugar fruits, the parchment layer is not very dense or it forms quite late. The pods can be eaten only at an early stage of development, later they form tough fibers that are not very pleasant to the taste. Popular varieties:
Other popular varieties are: Antoshka, Fantasy and Nastena.
BEANS, ASPARAGUS, STREAM, CURLY, FRENCH ... SUPER PLANT FOR EVERYONE !!!
Marigolds naturally prefer wetlands, but can grow in gardens with relatively dry beds. This species is undemanding to the soil. To create optimal conditions for them, it is worth preparing flower beds with moderately fertile soil by pouring a drainage layer at the bottom. The soil should be loosened to a depth of 15 cm, enriched with well-rotted compost.
This light-loving plant grows well in southern and western expositions, balconies. The ideal position is in full sun, no need to be afraid of the hot summer, marigolds perfectly withstand even extreme heat. Partial shade can negatively affect flowering intensity. However, these flowers can also be grown in partial shade.
Harvesting of mint begins at the beginning of the flowering phase, when the concentration of essential oils in the greenery is extremely high. Cut greens (leaves and shoots) are laid out in a thin layer to dry in the shade or hung tied in bunches in well-ventilated utility rooms (attics, awnings, verandas). The finished raw materials are stored in glass or tin containers. In the autumn-winter period, dried mint leaves are used to prepare medicinal infusions and fragrant tea, as well as a spicy seasoning for meat, fish and vegetable dishes. It is not recommended to store dried peppermint for more than 2 years.